Four cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes, [PtL(L')][ClO4] [HL = 6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine; L' = pyridine (1), 4-aminopyridine (2), 2-aminopyridine (3), 2,6-diaminopyridine (4)], were designed and synthesized to probe intramolecular N...Pt interactions. The crystal structures of the compounds show that the pyridine ligands are almost perpendicular to the planes of the molecules. In addition, the pendant NH2 groups of the 2-aminopyridine and 2,6-diaminopyridine ligands are close to the metal centers in complexes 3 and 4, with the Pt-N(H2) distances (3.065(3)-3.107(3) A) significantly shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of Pt and N. These compounds were also studied by electronic spectroscopy. All the complexes display intense intraligand pi-->pi* transitions at 200-340 nm (epsilon = 10(4)-10(3) M-1 cm-1) and moderately intense (epsilon approximately 10(3) M-1 cm-1) metal (Pt)-to-ligand (pi*) charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions. For 1 and 2, the MLCT transitions occur at approximately 390 nm, but the MLCT transition of 4 is exceptionally low in energy (492 nm). The low-temperature emission spectra of the complexes in frozen EMD glass indicate that 3 pi pi* is the emissive excited state for 1 and 2 but the emission of 3 is from a 3MLCT excited state. On the basis of the spectroscopic results, the order of energy of the MLCT excited states is established as 1 approximately 2 > 3 > 4. It is proposed that the red shifts of the MLCT transitions in 3 and 4 are due to increased electron-donating abilities of the ancillary pyridine ligands and intramolecular interactions between the orbitals of amine nitrogen lone pairs. Crystal data for the complexes are as follows. 1: triclinic P1, Z = 2, a = 8.7917(2) A, b = 10.6398(3) A, c = 11.9592(3) A, alpha = 107.130(1) degrees, beta = 92.522(1) degrees, gamma = 111.509(1) degrees. 2.CH3CN: triclinic P1, Z = 2, a = 7.0122(4) A, b = 12.9653(8) A, c = 14.0283(9) A, alpha = 107.3100(10) degrees, beta = 102.7640(10) degrees, gamma = 91.6320(10) degrees. 3.CH3CN: triclinic P1, Z = 2, a = 7.6459(1) A, b = 10.8433(1) A, c = 14.8722(2) A, alpha = 99.383(1) degrees, beta = 93.494(1) degrees, gamma = 101.385(1) degrees. 4.CH3CN: triclinic P1, Z = 2, a = 7.862(2) A, b = 10.977(3) A, c = 14.816(5) A, alpha = 99.34(2) degrees, beta = 92.64(2) degrees, gamma = 104.11(2) degrees.
Abstract:Mineral oil is the most popular insulating liquid for high voltage transformers due to its function as a cooling liquid and an electrical insulator. Kraft paper has been widely used as transformer solid insulation for a long time already. The degradation process of transformer paper due to thermal aging in mineral oil can change the physical and chemical structure of the cellulose paper. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis was used to identify changes in the chemical structure of transformer paper aged in mineral oil. FTIR results show that the intensity of the peak absorbance of the O-H functional group decreased with aging but the intensity of the peak absorbance of the C-H and C=O functional groups increased with aging. Changes in the chemical structure of the cellulose paper during thermal aging in mineral oil can be analyzed by an oxidation process of the cellulose paper and the reaction process between the carboxylic acids in the mineral oil and the hydroxyl groups on the cellulose. The correlation between the functional groups and the average number of chain scissions of transformer paper gives initial information that the transformer paper performance can be identified by using a spectroscopic technique as a non-destructive diagnostic technique.
Bakteri endofit banyak mendapat perhatian karena potensinya dalam memacu pertumbuhan dan kemampuannya dalam meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap penyakit dan hama tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengisolasi bakteri endofit beberapa varietas padi gogo dari berbagai daerah di Indonesia dan menguji potensinya sebagai agens hayati untuk pengendalian penyakit dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Isolasi bakteri endofit dilakukan dengan metode sterilisasi permukaan dengan alkohol dan natrium hipoklorit pada medium trypsic soy agar (TSA). Lebih dari 200 isolat bakteri endofit berhasil diisolasi dan dikoleksi dari beberapa varietas tanaman padi gogo. Isolat tersebut diseleksi untuk melihat kemampuan antibiosisnya terhadap cendawan patogen secara in vitro dan memacu pertumbuhan tanaman. Hasil seleksi menunjukkan 41 isolat bakteri endofit menunjukkan reaksi antibiosis terhadap Rhizoctonia solani dan 25 isolat bakteri endofit terhadap Pyricularia grisea pada medium potato dextrose agar (PDA) serta 8 isolat bakteri endofit menunjukkan aktivitas antibiosis terhadap R. solani maupun P. grisea pada medium PDA maupun TSA. Hasil uji pemacu pertumbuhan menunjukkan 12 isolat bakteri endofit dapat memacu pertumbuhan akar dan tajuk tanaman padi. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa beberapa bakteri endofit asal padi gogo berpotensi sebagai agens biokontrol dan pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman.
Abstract:Mineral oil is widely used as liquid insulation in high voltage equipment. Due to environmental considerations, recently natural esters have been considered as naturally friendly liquid insulation candidates for high voltage transformers. In this experiment, transformer insulation paper was subjected to get accelerated aging test with copper strip in natural ester in a hermeneutical heat-resistant glass bottle at temperatures of 120 • C and 150 • C for 336 h, 672 h and 1008 h. The experimental results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the intensity of the absorbance peak of the O-H functional group decreased with aging, while the intensity of the C-H and C=O functional group absorbance peaks have increased with aging and the intensity of the C-O functional group absorbance peak has a tendency to increase with aging. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) experimental results showed that the weight percent of the element C increased with aging and the weight percent of the element O has decreased with aging. The experimental results show a good correlation between the degree of polymerization (DP) and the weight percent of O element. This indicates that EDS may be used as a new method for estimating the DP of transformer insulation paper.
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