The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP),
Height reduction in soybean plants caused by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid RESUMO O ácido 2,3, Os componentes da produtividade da soja, tais como número de plantas por unidade de área, número de vagens por planta, número de sementes por vagem e massa média de sementes, são determinados por processos fenológicos como germinação, desenvolvimento vegetativo, florescimento, frutificação e maturação. Dentre os diversos fatores que podem afetar essas fases do desenvolvimento das culturas, os hormônios vegetais desempenham um papel importante, podendo uniformizar a germinação, controlar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, aumentar a fixação de flores e frutos e antecipar ou atrasar a maturação.Um dos principais problemas enfrentados pelos produtores de soja é o intenso crescimento vegetativo, que provoca acamamento das plantas, -NOTA -
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of isolated and combined applications of gibberellic acid (gibberellin), indolbutyric acid (auxin) and kinetin (cytokinin) on vegetative and reproductive development of tomato test plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom), to better elucidate the interactions among these hormonal classes. The following treatments were accomplished through foliar application: GA3 (5 mg L-1); IBA (5 mg L-1); KIN (9 mg L-1); GA3 + IBA (5 mg L-1 + 5 mg L-1); GA3 + KIN (5 mg L-1 + 9 mg L-1); IBA + KIN (5 mg L-1 + 9 mg L-1); GA3 + IBA + KIN (5 mg L-1 + 5 mg L-1 + 9 mg L-1) and Stimulate® (100 mL L-1). Plants from the control were sprayed with water. Stimulate®, is a commercial liquid formulation containing KIN (90 mg L-1), GA3 (50 mg L-1) and IBA (50 mg L-1). We analyzed the shoot dry matter (g), root dry matter (g); fruit fresh matter (g); fruit dry matter (g) and fruit size (cm). The experimental design was completely randomized with nine treatments and fifteen replications. The treatment means were compared by Tukey's test. Some combined applications of GA3, IBA and KIN or Stimulate® promoted significant increases in the dry matter accumulation of roots and fresh and dry matter of fruit compared to the control. Besides the perspective to extend such results for commercial tomato production, the relevance of known hormonal interactions for the results obtained is discussed.
The present work was developed to evaluate the effect on the cluster, berries and raquis characteristics of Niagara Rosada and Venus table grapes of increasing doses of gibberellic acid associated or not with branch girdling and/or cluster blunt. Two experiments, for each cultivar, were accomplished in the northwest area of São Paulo State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with five replications, being fourteen and eighteen treatments for 'Niagara Rosada' and twenty-eight treatments for 'Venus'. The gibberellic acid in the doses of 0; 10; 22,5; 35; 47,5; 60 and 72,5ppm, was applied, through the total immersion of the clusters, fifteen days after the full flowering, except for the second experiment with 'Niagara Rosada', in which was added up two more doses of 85 and 97,5ppm. The girdling in the productive branches was also accomplished in this same time. In the first experiment with 'Niagara Rosada' no effect of girdling was detected on the berry mass and size. Also, gibberellic acid (35ppm) alone increased cluster and berry mass and size. This same dose when associated with girdling provided increase in the soluble solids. In the second experiment with 'Niagara Rosada', larger increments on berry size and mass, as well as, pedicels diameter were obtained with gibberellic acid (60ppm) associated with branch girdling. The largest increments on cluster mass and width and on the berry number per cluster, were xi obtained applying gibberellic acid (35ppm) associated with girdling. In the first experiment with 'Venus' seedless table grape in 1999 it was detected that the higher the concentrations of gibberellic acid, the larger were berry length, width and the mass. Also, girdling associated or not with cluster blunt increased these same characteristics. In the second experiment with 'Venus' cultivar it was noticed that the higher the concentrations of gibberellic acid, the larger were cluster and raquis length and width. Gibberellic acid (35ppm) associated with girdling only or with cluster blunt provided the largest increase on cluster and raquis masses and the largest berry number per cluster. Larger berries were obtained with gibberellic acid (60ppm) associated with girdling only or with cluster blunt. The largest berry mass was obtained with gibberellic acid (47,5ppm). Also, it was detected a decrease in soluble solids with higher concentrations of the vegetable regulator associated with girdling.
RESUMOA utilização de pastas estimulantes tem por finalidade aumentar a taxa de fluxo de resina e o seu tempo de duração. No Horto Florestal de Itatinga -SP, 159 árvores de Pinus elliottii var. elliottii foram submetidas a tratamentos com 5 pastas estimulantes, Pasta Vermelha Alchem, Pasta com Ethephon Planebrás, Pasta Preta Resinas Brasil, Pasta Vermelha Eldorado e Pasta Teste (Paraquat + Ethephon) sendo comparadas ao Controle (Pasta Preta Planebrás). Foram realizadas explotações quinzenais e coletas trimestrais (do resultado de 5 estrias), determinando-se o peso de resina das árvores durante 2,5 anos. A aplicação de pastas estimulantes com ethephon não mostrou vantagem sobre aplicação de pastas sem ethephon. As pastas estimulantes aplicadas diferiram nas pesagens realizadas. Nos tratamentos efetuados, a porcentagem de breu variou de 71,33% a 76,56% e a terebintina entre 10,37% a 13,78%. O teor de alfa-pineno variou de 37,70% a 53,31%, sendo que o de beta-pineno de 34,34% a 50,41%. Palavras-chave: Pinus; estimulação; resina. ABSTRACTSThe use of stimulating pastes aims to increase the rate of resin flow and its time of duration. In the Forest Experiment Station of Itatinga, São Paulo state, 159 trees of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii were were submitted to the treatments with 5 stimulant pastes, (Red Alchem, Paste with Ethephon Planebrás, Black Resin Brazil, Red Eldorado and Test Paste (Paraquat + Ethephon) that was compared to the Control (Black Planebrás). Biweekly chipping and collects every three months were accomplished (from the result of 5 grooves), being determined the resin weight during 2.5 years. The application of stimulating pastes with ethephon did not show significant advantage about application of pastes without ethephon. The stimulant pastes applied were different in the weightings performed. In the treatments applied, the percentage of pitch ranged from 71.33% to 76.56% and the turpentine ranged from 10.37% to 13.78%. The yield of alpha-pinene ranged from 37.70% to 53.31%, and of beta-pinene from 34.34% to 50.41%.
EFFECTS OF THIDIAZURON AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON CLUSTER AND BERRY CHARACTERISTICS OF VÊNUS TABLE GRAPE IN THE NORTHWESTERN SÃO PAULO STATEABSTRACT The use of growth regulators is widely diffused in vine crops to improve grapes quality (Vitis vinifera L.), aiming mainly the increase of fruit size and set, loosening clusters, and elimination of seeds. In this context, a trial was carried out in a vineyard located at Urânia-SP, Northwestern São Paulo State, during two seasons. It was used thidiazuron at 5 or 10mg.L -1 and gibberellic acid at 30mg.L -1 , combined or not. The following variables were evaluated: weight, length and width of clusters and berries; weight of rachis; number of berries; number of trace-seeds; and total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, and TSS/TTA ratio of juice. Gibberellic acid applications increased weight, length, width and number of berries, and reduced number of trace-seeds. Association to thidiazuron potentiated gibberellic acid effects regarding 1. Parte da tese de doutorado do primeiro autor apresentada ao curso de pós
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