Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used for various malignancies. However, their safety and efficacy in patients with a kidney transplant have not been defined. To delineate this, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 69 patients with a kidney transplant receiving ICIs between January 2010 and May 2020. For safety, we assessed the incidence, timing, and risk factors of acute graft rejection. For efficacy, objective response rate and
SummaryBackground and objective Arteriovenous thigh grafts are a potential vascular access option in hemodialysis patients who have exhausted all upper-limb sites. This study compared the outcomes of thigh grafts with outcomes obtained with dialysis catheters.Design, setting, participants, & measurements A prospective vascular access database was queried to identify 209 thigh grafts placed from January 1, 2003, to June 30, 2011. The following were calculated: secondary graft survival (from graft creation to permanent failure), assisted primary graft survival (from graft creation to first thrombosis), and infection-free graft survival (from graft creation to first graft infection). Graft outcomes were compared with those observed with 472 tunneled internal jugular dialysis catheters.Results The median duration of patient follow-up was 340 days for grafts and 91 days for catheters. The surgical technical failure rate of thigh grafts was 8.1% and was higher in patients with vascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-8.04; P=0.03). Secondary and assisted primary graft survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 62%, 54%, and 38% and 38%, 27%, and 17%, respectively. Infection-free graft survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 79%, 73%, and 61%. Secondary survival was much worse for dialysis catheters than thigh grafts (HR, 4.44; 95% CI,; P,0.001). Likewise, infection-free survival was far worse for catheters than for thigh grafts (HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.80-4.82; P,0.001).Conclusions Thigh grafts are a viable vascular option in patients who have exhausted upper-extremity options. Outcomes with thigh grafts are superior to those obtained with dialysis catheters.
Kidney allograft failure and return to dialysis carry a high risk of morbidity. A practice survey was developed by the AST Kidney Pancreas Community of Practice workgroup and distributed electronically to the AST members. There were 104 respondents who represented 92 kidney transplant centers. Most survey respondents were transplant nephrologists at academic centers. The most common approach to immunosuppression management was to withdraw the antimetabolite first (73%), while only 12% responded they would withdraw calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) first. More than 60% reported that the availability of a living donor is the most important factor in their decision to taper immunosuppression, followed by risk of infection, risk of sensitization, frailty, and side effects of medications. More than half of respondents reported that | 3035 AJT ALHAMAD et AL.
Kidney injury is frequently seen in patients with end‐stage liver disease from cirrhosis and liver failure. Among selected patients, simultaneous liver kidney (SLK) transplantation provides improved post‐transplant graft and patient outcomes compared to liver transplantation (LT) alone. We conducted the review of the existing literature on SLK transplant criteria and outcomes. Since the introduction of the model for end‐stage disease (MELD) score in 2002, there has been an increased use of SLK transplantation. The criteria for SLK allocation are relatively homogeneous among patients with end‐stage renal disease with cirrhosis and among patients with cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. However, these are quite heterogeneous among patients with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury (AKI), mainly because of inability to accurately differentiate cause of AKI, especially hepatorenal syndrome versus intrarenal aetiology. Clearly, there is an unmet need of urine biomarkers of tubular injury and/or clinical models to accurately stratify AKI aetiology and to predict renal recovery after LT as basis to best utilize the scarce donor kidney pool. In this regard, it remains to be seen whether recently implemented policies by the organ procurement transplant network can fulfil the goal of saving donor kidneys and optimal allocation of SLK.
The return to dialysis after allograft failure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This transition is made more complex by the rising numbers of patients who seek repeat transplantation and therefore may have indications for remaining on low levels of immunosuppression, despite the potential increased morbidity. Management strategies vary across providers, driven by limited data on how to transition off How to cite this article: Lubetzky M, Tantisattamo E, Molnar MZ, et al. The failing kidney allograft: A review and recommendations for the care and management of a complex group of patients.
In this pilot study, CVVH using ACD-A for RCA and a Ca2+ -containing RF was safely and effectively used without a continuous Ca2+ infusion. This protocol is a promising solution for maintaining effective CRRT when intravenous calcium is in short supply.
Tacrolimus was discovered in 1984 and entered clinical use shortly thereafter, contributing to successful solid organ transplantation across the globe. In this review, we cover development of tacrolimus, its evolving clinical utility, and issues affecting its current usage. Since earliest use of this class of immunosuppressant, concerns for calcineurin-inhibitor toxicity have led to efforts to minimize or eliminate these agents in clinical regimens but with limited success. Current understanding of the role of tacrolimus focuses more on its efficacy in preventing graft rejection and graft loss. As we enter the fourth decade of tacrolimus use, newer studies utilizing novel combinations (as with the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, and T-cell costimulation blockade with belatacept) offer potential for enhanced benefits.
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