Abstract-In this paper, the different temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses of non-oriented Si-steel laminations are investigated. The measured iron loss results show that both the hysteresis and eddy current losses vary linearly with temperature between 40°C to 100°C, a typical temperature range of electrical machines. Varying rates of hysteresis and eddy current losses with the temperature are different and fluctuate with flux density and frequency. Based on this, an improved iron loss model which can consider temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses separately is developed. Based on the improved iron loss model, the temperature influence on the iron loss can be fully considered by measuring iron losses at only two different temperatures. The investigation is experimentally validated by both the tests based on a ring specimen and an electrical machine.Index Terms-iron loss, eddy current loss, hysteresis loss, temperature dependency, electrical machines . In , only the temperature dependency of the eddy current loss is considered while the hysteresis loss is assumed to be not influenced by the temperature. In , the temperature influence on the total iron loss is simply modeled by introducing an equivalent temperature dependent coefficient which is a mix of temperature influences on both the hysteresis and eddy current losses. However in  and , it has shown experimentally that the hysteresis and eddy current losses have different temperature dependencies.The aim of this paper is to develop an iron loss model which can consider the temperature dependencies of the hysteresis and the eddy current losses separately. The iron losses at different flux density, frequency and temperature in non-oriented Si-steel laminations are measured firstly by the ring specimen test as will be described in Section II. In Section III, the accuracy of existing iron loss model having variable
The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.
High temperature inhibits wheat grain filling. Polyamines (PAs) are closely associated with plant resistance caused by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the effect of PAs on the grain filling of wheat under heat stress. Two wheat varieties differing in heat resistance were used, and endogenous PAs levels were measured during grain filling under normal growth conditions outside the greenhouse (CK), artificially simulated high temperature (HT), artificially simulated high temperature plus exogenous application of spermine (HT + Spm) and artificially simulated high temperature plus spermidine (HT + Spd) treatments. Additionally, the variation of antioxidant enzymatic activities and osmotic adjustable substances content in grains was measured during grain filling. The results showed that compared with HT,HT + Spm and HT + Spd significantly increased grain weight of XC 6 (heat-resistant variety) by 19% and 5%, and XC 31 (heat-sensitive variety) by 31% and 34%, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)and catalase (CAT) and content of Spm, Spd, and proline (Pro) increased significantly, while putrescine (Put), malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar (SS)contentdecreased during grain filling; The correlation analysis showed that grain weight was negatively correlated with the content of PUT, MDA, Pro and activity of SOD and CAT and positively correlated with the content of Spd and activity of POD in grains. Our results indicated that exogenous Spm and Spd could alleviate the heat injury of grain filling.
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