BackgroundRepeated exposure to addictive drugs elicits long-lasting cellular and molecular changes. It has been reported that the aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is involved in cocaine and heroin addiction, yet the expression profile of lncRNAs and their potential effects on methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization are largely unknown.ResultsUsing high-throughput strand-specific complementary DNA sequencing technology (ssRNA-seq), here we examined the alterations in the lncRNAs expression profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of METH-sensitized mice. We found that the expression levels of 6246 known lncRNAs (6215 down-regulated, 31 up-regulated) and 8442 novel lncRNA candidates (8408 down-regulated, 34 up-regulated) were significantly altered in the METH-sensitized mice. Based on characterizations of the genomic contexts of the lncRNAs, we further showed that there were 5139 differentially expressed lncRNAs acted via cis mechanisms, including sense intronic (4295 down-regulated and one up-regulated), overlapping (25 down-regulated and one up-regulated), natural antisense transcripts (NATs, 148 down-regulated and eight up-regulated), long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs, 582 down-regulated and five up-regulated), and bidirectional (72 down-regulated and two up-regulated). Moreover, using the program RNAplex, we identified 3994 differentially expressed lncRNAs acted via trans mechanisms. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the predicted cis- and trans- associated genes were significantly enriched during neuronal development, neuronal plasticity, learning and memory, and reward and addiction.ConclusionsTaken together, our results suggest that METH can elicit global changes in lncRNA expressions in the NAc of sensitized mice that might be involved in METH-induced locomotor sensitization and addiction.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12868-015-0157-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The torque production of variable flux reluctance machines (VFRMs) is explained by the "magnetic gearing effect" in recent research. Based on this theory, this paper concludes the general principles for feasible stator/rotor pole selection and corresponding winding configuration for VFRMs. The influence of stator/rotor pole combination on torque performance is comprehensively investigated not only in terms of average torque and torque ripple, but also in terms of each single torque component. It is found that the synchronous torque is proportional to the fundamental rotor radial permeance component and has the dominant contribution in average torque for all the VFRMs. The stator slot number and rotor pole number should be close to each other to achieve the highest output torque. Meanwhile, the 6-stator-slot/(6i±2)-rotor-pole (6s/(6i±2)r) and their multiples are large torque ripple origins for VFRMs due to the large reluctance torque ripple. Also, it is proved that a lower stator slot number is preferable choice to obtain higher torque/copper loss ratio, whereas a higher stator slot number is more suitable for large machine scale scenario. Finally, the analyses and conclusions are verified by finite element analysis (FEA) on the 6-, 12-, 18-and 24-stator-slot VFRMs and by experimental tests on a 6s/7r and 6s/8r VFRMs.
This paper provides a step-by-step guideline for the assessment of an automotive safety microprocessor with ISO 26262 hardware requirements. ISO 26262 part 5 -Product development at the hardware level -specifies the safety activities during the phase of the automotive hardware development. In this phase, hardware safety design is derived (from the results of ISO 26262 part 3 and 4), implemented, integrated, and tested. To prove the compliance with ISO 26262 hardware development process, quantitative evaluations on the hardware are indispensable. These quantitative evaluations are known as hardware architecture metrics and probabilistic hardware metrics. The assessment results qualify a design with an automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) which ranges from ASIL-A (lowest) to ASIL-D (highest). In this paper, we implemented an exemplary safety microprocessor to demonstrate the ISO 26262 hardware assessment process. The derivation procedures of the ASIL level from the hardware architecture metrics and probabilistic hardware metrics are fully discussed. Based on the evaluation results, we also provide design suggestions for the ISO 26262 safety hardware design.
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