In order to evaluate the importance of deep learning techniques in stroke diseases, this paper systematically reviews the relevant literature. Deep learning techniques have a significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of stroke. In addition, this study also discusses the current bottlenecks and the future development prospects of deep learning technology.

In order to effectively analyze and control use-related risk of medical devices, quantitative methodologies must be applied. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and risk reduction. In this article, an improved FMEA based on Fuzzy Mathematics and Grey Relational Theory is developed to better carry out userelated risk analysis for medical devices. As an example, the analysis process using this improved FMEA method for a certain medical device (C-arm X-ray machine) is described.

In the framework of MDP, although the general reward function takes three arguments-current state, action, and successor state; it is often simplified to a function of two arguments-current state and action. The former is called a transition-based reward function, whereas the latter is called a state-based reward function. When the objective involves the expected total reward only, this simplification works perfectly. However, when the objective is risk-sensitive, this simplification leads to an incorrect value. We propose three successively more general state-augmentation transformations (SATs), which preserve the reward sequences as well as the reward distributions and the optimal policy in risk-sensitive reinforcement learning. In risk-sensitive scenarios, firstly we prove that, for every MDP with a stochastic transition-based reward function, there exists an MDP with a deterministic state-based reward function, such that for any given (randomized) policy for the first MDP, there exists a corresponding policy for the second MDP, such that both Markov reward processes share the same reward sequence. Secondly we illustrate that two situations require the proposed SATs in an inventory control problem. One could be using Q-learning (or other learning methods) on MDPs with transition-based reward functions, and the other could be using methods, which are for the Markov processes with a deterministic state-based reward functions, on the Markov processes with general reward functions. We show the advantage of the SATs by considering Value-at-Risk as an example, which is a risk measure on the reward distribution instead of the measures (such as mean and variance) of the distribution. We illustrate the error in the reward distribution estimation from the reward simplification, and show how the SATs enable a variance formula to work on Markov processes with general reward functions. ∞ t=0 γ t−1 R t -in an infinite-horizon MDP with finite state and action spaces, and consider the Value-at-Risk (VaR) objective as a risk-sensitive example. We generalize the transformation in (Ma and Yu 2017) to three successively more general SATs (Cases 1, 2, and 3), give a proof for the most general one, and illustrate the error from the reward simplification on the return distribution.

In reinforcement learning, the reward function on current state and action is widely used. When the objective is about the expectation of the (discounted) total reward only, it works perfectly. However, if the objective involves the total reward distribution, the result will be wrong. This paper studies Value-at-Risk (VaR) problems in short-and longhorizon Markov decision processes (MDPs) with two reward functions, which share the same expectations. Firstly we show that with VaR objective, when the real reward function is transition-based (with respect to action and both current and next states), the simplified (state-based, with respect to action and current state only) reward function will change the VaR. Secondly, for long-horizon MDPs, we estimate the VaR function with the aid of spectral theory and the central limit theorem. Thirdly, since the estimation method is for a Markov reward process with the reward function on current state only, we present a transformation algorithm for the Markov reward process with the reward function on current and next states, in order to estimate the VaR function with an intact total reward distribution.

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