Semiconducting SnO2 nanowires deposited with Pd and Sn nanoparticles on their surface are shown to be a highly sensitive hydrogen sensor with fast response time at room temperature. Compared with the SnO2 nanowire deposited with Pd or Sn nanoparticles alone, the Pd/Sn-deposited SnO2 nanowire exhibits a significant improvement in the sensitivity and reversibility of sensing hydrogen gas in the air at room temperature. Our investigation indicates that two factors are responsible for the synergistic effect of Pd/Sn codeposition on SnO2 nanowires. One is that in the presence of Pd the oxidation of Sn nanoparticles on the surface of the SnO2 nanowire is incomplete leading only to suboxides SnOx (1 ≤ x < 2), and the other is that the surface of the Pd/Sn-deposited SnO2 nanowire is almost perfectly hydrophobic.
BackgroundActive upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors.MethodsThe records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of surgery: clear or green nasal secretion, dry or moist cough, nasal congestion, or fever. RAE such as laryngospasm, bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation and sustained cough were collected before induction, during intubation, during extubation, after extubation and in the postanesthesia care unit.ResultsForty-five patients had RAE. The patients with RAE were younger than those without RAE. There were more passive smokers and a greater number of intubation attempts in patients with RAE than in those without RAE. The type of surgery and type of inhalation agents were not different between patients with and without RAE. Passive smoking was the only independent risk factor for RAE.ConclusionsIn children with an active URI using orotracheal tube and inhalation anesthetics, passive smoking is an important risk factor for RAE.
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