The peculiarity of the limbic system is that between its structures there are simple bilateral relations and complex paths, forming a set of closed circles. Such an organization creates conditions for a long circulation of the same excitation in the system and thus for the preservation of a single state in it and the dominance of this state to other brain systems. The limbic system organizes and ensures the flow of vegetative, somatic and mental processes in emotional and motivational activity. It also provides perception and storage of emotionally significant information, selection and implementation of adaptive forms of emotional behavior. In this regard, the limbic system is called the “visceral brain”. The main medical and social significance of the visceral brain is the formation of emotions. The visceral brain is involved in the regulation of the functions of internal organs, smell, automatic regulation, emotions, memory, sleep, wakefulness, etc. Visceral brain determines the choice and implementation of adaptive forms of behavior, the dynamics of innate forms of behavior, maintenance of homeostasis, generative processes. It provides hormonal stimulation of the body, creating an emotional background, the formation and implementation of the processes of higher nervous activity. Cognitive memory is one of the largest and most capacious concepts that represents the basic function of memory in General. The knowledge that a person receives during training is first perceived as something external, but then gradually they turn into experience and beliefs. Cognitive memory retains all the knowledge gained, representing a kind of “library”, and the process of assimilation and preservation is complicated as the complexity of the information received.
Biophysics of blood circulation in Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by disorders of laminar blood flow and cerebral hypoperfusion. As a result, failure intracellular metabolism, there is a cascade of changes in neurons associated with the processes of excitotoxicity and oxidant stress, which in turn stimulates amyloidogenesis. Experimental and 25-year observations have shown that the long-existing state of hypoperfusion leads to hippocampal disorders. This process is accompanied by memory impairment, structural changes in the capillaries in the hippocampus, impaired glucose and protein metabolism, β–amyloid deposition, activation of glial tissue, death of hippocampal neurons. Neuroreflex disruption in the ‘cerebral heart’ and a violation of cerebrovascular homeostasis contributes to the development of vascular dementia through the following mechanisms, including cerebral microangiopathy, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuronal damage, the increase in β–amyloid neurotoxicity, apoptosis, etc. The duration of therapy with antiglutamatergic and multimodal drugs in Alzheimer’s disease requires constant multidisciplinary monitoring of targets and medical and social control in the system of long-term care. Lifelong acquisition of knowledge, information positive Nano communication enable the preservation of mental health and active longevity. Innovative methods of P4-medicine of neuroplasticity management allow to carry out timely prevention of the factors reducing neuroplasticity, to keep factors of positive influence on visceral and cognitive brain, and the main thing — in due time to apply in practical health care the combined methods of preservation and development of the human cognitive brain.
Modern technologies and tools for the rehabilitation of patients with Alzheimer’s disease have many potential applications for the treatment of dementia from diagnosis and evaluation to medical care, medical, social and economic support: from healthy aging, to accelerated and pathological aging of Homo sapiens. Doctor and neuroscientist: a modern solution to problems of rehabilitation ‘cognitive brain’ of Homo sapiens using on the one hand, tools and technologies of artificial intelligence, and with another — a multidisciplinary collaboration with clinical neurophysiologist ‘universal’ specialist in the field of neurology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and geriatrics. Systems biology, Biophysics, physiology, neurophysiology and highlight the multidimensional and combinatorial profiles of genetic, biological, pathophysiological and clinical biomarkers that reflects the heterogeneity of neurodegeneration, by means of modern efficient analysis tools to register and create comprehensive maps of the brain and recording of dynamic models in different systems: from molecules to neurons to brain regions. Bioinformatics, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of systems are aimed at calculating neural network models of the relationship between structure and dynamic function in brain networks. Structural and functional markers of the brain establish a link between clinical phenotypes and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms. Phenotypic variability is now considered one of the biggest problems in gerontology and geriatrics. MRI imaging to detect subtle changes in brain tissue and structure, fMRI imaging to measure changes in brain activity, and EEG to measure electrical activity have given clinicians many new insights into what happens in the brain in healthy and pathological aging. The paradigm of system neurophysiology is aimed at studying the fundamental principles of functioning of integrated neural systems through the integration and analysis of neural information recorded in a multimodal way (for example, fMRI and EEG), through computational modeling and combining data mining methods. The ultimate goal of systemic neurophysiology is to find out how signals are represented in neocortical networks and what role many different neural components play. Modern artificial intelligence technologies are capable of many things, including predicting Alzheimer's disease with the help of combined and hybrid neuroimaging, sequencing of a new generation, etc., in order to start timely and effective rehabilitation brain Homo sapiens.
В обзоре представлены данные литературы последних лет о патогенезе, диагностике, лечении амиодарон-индуцированного тиреотоксикоза (АИТ), который является частым осложнением терапии амиодароном (Ам). Описаны изменения секреции и метаболизма тиреоидныхгомонов под влиянием кратковременной и длительной терапии Ам. Развитие АИТ всегда приводит к ухудшению течения аритмии, усугублению недостаточности кровообращения, утяжелению состояния пациента. Выделяют АИТ 1 типа и АИТ 2 типа, а также смешанную форму. Описаны диагностические критерии АИТ 1 и 2 типа. Наиболее информативным тестом для дифференциальной диагностики АИТ 1, 2 типов и смешанных форм является сонография щитовидной железы с допплеровским исследованием кровотока и сканирование с 99mTc-sestaMIBI. Тактика лечения определяется типом АИТ, состоянием сердечно-сосудистой системы, риском повторных аритмий. Консервативное лечение зависит от типа АИТ и осуществляется тиреостатиками или глюкокортикоидами. Обсуждается возможность продолжения антиаритмической терапии Ам у пациентов, перенесших АИТ. При АИТ 1 типа и смешанной форме требуется отмена препарата, если это невозможно – радикальное лечение тиреотоксикоза (радиойодтерапия, тиреоидэктомия). АИТ 2 типа является самолимитирующимся процессом, при жизненно угрожающих аритмиях прием Ам может быть продолжен. Показана эффективность радиойодтерапии для радикального лечения тиреотоксикоза при АИТ 1 и 2 типа, несмотря на низкий захват радиойода. Однако этот вопрос требует дальнейшего изучения и обсуждения. Для быстрого восстановления эутиреоза у тяжелых больных применяют плазмаферез и тиреоидэктомию.
Anemic syndrome is detected in 10-25% of geriatric patients, and with increasing age, there is a tendency to increase the incidence of the disease. Among the diseases that lead to the development of anemia, kidney pathology plays an important role. Progressive deterioration of kidney function in old age is associated with an increased risk of fractures, sarcopenia, and the development of cognitive impairment. Also, nephrogenic anemia aggravates the prognosis in patients with cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with an increase in myocardial ischemia, an increase in tissue hypoxia, a progression of left ventricular hypertrophy, and a decrease in left ventricular systolic function.
Hormones of the axis of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad, regulating reproductive function, have a multiple effect on the development and function of the brain. A number of studies have shown gender differences in cognitive functions both normal and for various brain diseases, which may be partially associated with sex hormones. The purpose of this article was to analyze the literature on the influence of sex hormones on cognitive functions throughout life, the role of sex hormones in reducing cognitive abilities, especially in Alzheimer’s disease, the possibility of exogenous ministration of sex hormones to improve cognitive functions and / or reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Doctor and neuroscientist: a modern solution to problems of rehabilitation ‘cognitive brain’ of Homo sapiens using on the one hand, tools and technologies of artificial intelligence, and with another — a multidisciplinary collaboration with clinical neurophysiologist ‘universal’ specialist in the field of neurology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, endocrinology and geriatrics.
In studies Romanchuk N. P. from invention in 2010 (A method for producing a cereal component for an instant food product and a method for producing a functional instant food product. RF patent for invention №2423873, consisting in increasing the preventive effect on the human body through the introduction of vital food substances into a functional food product to suppress free radical activity, invasive detoxification of the human body, optimizing neurogenic regulation of vascular tone in arterial hypertension and restoring reproductive functions in males and females by optimizing the quality structure of product components), to the present (https://doi.org/10.33619/2414-2948/58/14) it has been shown that a new managed healthy biomicrobiota and personalized functional and balanced nutrition of the “brain and microbiota” is a long-term medical program of the patient, which allows the combined use of nutritional epigenetics and pharmaceuticals, and most importantly the prevention of polypharmacy. The main engine of human longevity is when microbiological memory remains stable, and the diet of functional (healthy) dietary nutrition and the structure of healthy biomicrobiota function almost unchanged. The human microbiome is a collection of all microbes that inhabit the body. The human gut microbiome is a unique collection of microorganisms that affect a number of important processes: from metabolic and immune to cognitive, and deviation of its composition from the norm leads to the development of various pathological conditions. Harmful changes in the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as intestinal dysbacteriosis, have been associated with the development and progression of numerous diseases, including cardiovascular (CVD) diseases. Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and sedentary lifestyles, have been shown to cause bowel dysbiosis. Dysbacteriosis is associated with gut inflammation and reduced gut barrier integrity, which in turn increases levels of circulating structural components of bacteria and microbial metabolites that may contribute to CVD development. The purpose of the present review is to summarize available data on the role of the gut microbiome in the regulation of cardiovascular function and pathological processes. Particular attention is paid to dietary-related microbiome changes, as well as cellular mechanisms by which the microbiome can alter CVD risk.
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