BackgroundRecently, DNA methylation was proposed to regulate fleshy fruit ripening. Fleshy fruits can be distinguished by their ripening process as climacteric fruits, such as tomatoes, or non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberries. Tomatoes undergo a global decrease in DNA methylation during ripening, due to increased expression of a DNA demethylase gene. The dynamics and biological relevance of DNA methylation during the ripening of non-climacteric fruits are unknown.ResultsHere, we generate single-base resolution maps of the DNA methylome in immature and ripe strawberry. We observe an overall loss of DNA methylation during strawberry fruit ripening. Thus, ripening-induced DNA hypomethylation occurs not only in climacteric fruit, but also in non-climacteric fruit. Application of a DNA methylation inhibitor causes an early ripening phenotype, suggesting that DNA hypomethylation is important for strawberry fruit ripening. The mechanisms underlying DNA hypomethylation during the ripening of tomato and strawberry are distinct. Unlike in tomatoes, DNA demethylase genes are not upregulated during the ripening of strawberries. Instead, genes involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation are downregulated during strawberry ripening. Further, ripening-induced DNA hypomethylation is associated with decreased siRNA levels, consistent with reduced RdDM activity. Therefore, we propose that a downregulation of RdDM contributes to DNA hypomethylation during strawberry ripening.ConclusionsOur findings provide new insight into the DNA methylation dynamics during the ripening of non-climacteric fruit and suggest a novel function of RdDM in regulating an important process in plant development.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13059-018-1587-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background: Altered Na + channel expression, enhanced excitability, and spontaneous activity occur in nerve-injury and inflammatory models of pathological pain, through poorly understood mechanisms. The cytokine GRO/KC (growth related oncogene; CXCL1) shows strong, rapid upregulation in dorsal root ganglion in both nerve injury and inflammatory models. Neurons and glia express its receptor (CXCR2). CXCL1 has well-known effects on immune cells, but little is known about its direct effects on neurons.
It has been confirmed that the voltage-gated persistent sodium currents mediate the generation of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (SMPOs) and contribute to shaping repetitive firing. Our previous study indicated that gabapentin (GBP) administration induced a dose-dependent inhibition of SMPO in chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion (CCD) neurons. To investigate the mechanisms and possible site(s) of action of GBP, the persistent sodium currents (I(NaP)) were measured and the effects of GBP on I(NaP) were examined in CCD neurons electrophysiologically in vitro. DRG neurons possess slow TTX-sensitive inactivating sodium currents that significantly contribute to the generation of membrane oscillations by amplifying the resonance behavior. GBP reduced the resonant amplitude of DRG neurons as well as inhibiting the firing and SMPO induced by injection current, which was strongly due to the inhibitory effect on persistent sodium currents. Furthermore, we found that GBP (1-20 microM) administration inhibited the persistent sodium currents in dose-dependent manner, while the changes of K(+) and Ca(2+) current minimally contributed to the effect of GBP on oscillation and resonant behavior of DRG neurons. In contrast, the amplitude and voltage-dependence of transient sodium current were unchanged by GBP. The results suggest that GBP decreased the amplitude of resonance and abolished the SMPO of A-type DRG neurons through the inhibition of I(NaP), and thus inhibited the SMPO dependent repetitive and bursting firings.
A fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor, novel to our knowledge, based on a single "S"-like fiber taper has been fabricated via applying nonaxial pull in fiber tapering by a fusion splicer. The typical feature size of the structure has a length of 660 μm and the axial offset of 96 μm. This S fiber taper MZI has a refractive index (RI) sensitivity of 1590 nm/refractive index unit in the RI range of 1.409-1.425 and a strain sensitivity of about -60 pm/microstrain, which is 30 times higher than that of the normal two-taper-based MZI sensors.
Organic crystals have great potential for the applications in laser devices. This article presents an effective approach for fabrication of distributed feedback single crystal lasers. With the laser interference ablation method, high quality grating structures have been fabricated on the organic single‐crystalline thin film materials. The relationship between the depth, periodicity, and laser fluence is discussed. The optical properties, such as photoluminescence, and diffractive properties are studied in detail. With the appropriate period, strong laser emission has been observed from these devices. Distributed feedback lasing is demonstrated from the laser interference ablated organic single crystals for the first time.
BackgroundInflammatory processes play important roles in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain states, but the effects of inflammation per se within the sensory ganglia are not well understood. The cytokine growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC; CXCL1) shows strong, rapid upregulation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in both nerve injury and inflammatory pain models. We examined the direct effects of GRO/KC on small diameter DRG neurons, which are predominantly nociceptive. Whole cell voltage clamp technique was used to measure voltage-activated potassium (K) currents in acutely cultured adult rat small diameter sensory neurons. Fluorescently labeled isolectin B4 (IB4) was used to classify cells as IB4-positive or IB4-negative.ResultsIn IB4-negative neurons, voltage-activated K current densities of both transient and sustained components were increased after overnight incubation with GRO/KC (1.5 nM), without marked changes in voltage dependence or kinetics. The average values for the slow and fast decay time constants at 20 mV were unchanged by GRO/KC. The amplitude of the fast inactivating component increased significantly with no large shifts in the voltage dependence of inactivation. The increase in K currents was completely blocked by co-incubation with protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) or NF-κB inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or quinazoline (6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxypheny lethylamino;QNZ). In contrast, the voltage-activated K current of IB4-positive neurons was unchanged by GRO/KC. GRO/KC incubation caused no significant changes in the expression level of eight selected voltage-gated K channel genes in quantitative PCR analysis.ConclusionThe results suggest that GRO/KC has important effects in inflammatory processes via its direct actions on sensory neurons, and that activation of NF-κB is involved in the GRO/KC-induced enhancement of K currents.
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