Foi realizado um levantamento referente à comercialização de herbicidas no Estado do Paraná, visando quantificar o volume de sua utilização durante o ano de 2000. Em seguida, com base nas propriedades químicas desses herbicidas, estudaram-se critérios teóricos para classificá-los de acordo com o potencial de lixiviação. A análise dos dados do levantamento indicou que o maior volume comercializado ocorreu no quarto trimestre, relacionando-se provavelmente ao aumento da demanda provocada pela safra de verão. Os grupos de mecanismos de ação cujo consumo é mais significativo são, pela ordem, os inibidores da síntese de aminoácidos (36,9% do total comercializado), os inibidores da fotossíntese (31,3%), os mimetizadores da auxina (11%) e os inibidores da divisão celular (8,8%). Os herbicidas glyphosate (4.562,28 t), atrazine (3.075,91 t), 2,4-D (1.659,33 t) e sulfosate (631,60 t) representam, em conjunto, cerca de 65% do volume total comercializado no Estado. A classificação quanto ao potencial de lixiviação demonstrou que acifluorfen-sódio, alachlor, atrazine, chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, hexazinone, imazamox, imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr, metolachlor, metribuzin, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron, picloram, sulfentrazone e tebuthiuron são potencialmente lixiviadores, de acordo com os três critérios teóricos adotados (GUS, CDFA e Cohen).
Indaziflam, a new alkylazine herbicide that inhibits cellulose biosynthesis, is under current development for soil applications in perennial crops and nonagricultural areas. Sorption and desorption of indaziflam in six soils from Brazil and three soils from the United States, with different physical chemical properties, were investigated using the batch equilibration method. Sorption kinetics demonstrated that soil-solution equilibrium was attained in <24 h. The Freundlich equation described the sorption behavior of the herbicide for all soils (R(2) > 0.99). K(f) values of the Brazilian oxisols ranged from 4.66 to 29.3, and 1/n values were ≥ 0.95. Sorption was positively correlated to %OC and clay contents. U.S. mollisol K(f) values ranged from 6.62 to 14.3; 1/n values for sorption were ≥ 0.92. K(f) values from mollisols were also positively correlated with %OC. These results suggest that indaziflam potential mobility, based solely on its sorption coefficients, would range from moderate to low in soil. Desorption was hysteretic on all soils, further decreasing its potential mobility for offsite transport.
Sorption of the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, dicamba, hexazinone, imazethapyr, metsulfuron‐methyl, nicosulfuron, simazine and sulfometuron‐methyl was characterized on six Brazilian soils, using the batch equilibration method. In general, weak acid herbicides (dicamba, imazethapyr, metsulfuron‐methyl, nicosulfuron and sulfometuron‐methyl) were the least sorbed, whereas weak bases such as triazines and nonionic herbicides (alachlor) were the most sorbed. The Kd values found showed a significant correlation with soil organic carbon content (OC) for all herbicides except imazethapyr and nicosulfuron. Koc values showed a smaller variation among soils than Kd. To estimate the leaching potential, Koc and the ground‐water ubiquity score (GUS) were used to calculate half‐lives (t1/2) that would rank these herbicides as leachers or non‐leachers. Comparison of calculated values to published values for t1/2 demonstrated that sulfonylureas and hexazinone are leachers in all soils, alachlor is transitional, and atrazine, simazine and dicamba are leachers or transitional, depending on soil type. Results discussed in this paper provide background to prioritize herbicides or chemical groups that should be evaluated in field conditions with regard to their leaching potential to ground‐water in tropical soils.
Aims: Glyphosate‐resistant (GR) soybean production increases each year because of the efficacy of glyphosate for weed management. A new or ‘second’ generation of GR soybean (GR2) is now commercially available for farmers that is being promoted as higher yielding relative to the previous, ‘first generation’ (GR1) cultivars. Recent reports show that glyphosate affects the biology and ecology of rhizosphere micro‐organisms in GR soybean that affect yield. The objective of this research was to evaluate the microbiological interactions in the rhizospheres of GR2 and GR1 soybean and the performance of the cultivars with different rates of glyphosate applied at different growth stages. Methods and Results: A greenhouse study was conducted using GR1 and GR2 soybean cultivars grown in a silt loam soil. Glyphosate was applied at V2, V4 and V6 growth stages at three rates. Plants harvested at R1 growth stage had high root colonization by Fusarium spp.; reduced rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads, Mn‐reducing bacteria, and indoleacetic acid–producing rhizobacteria; and reduced shoot and root biomass. Conclusions: Glyphosate applied to GR soybean, regardless of cultivar, negatively impacts the complex interactions of microbial groups, biochemical activity and root growth that can have subsequent detrimental effects on plant growth and productivity. Significance and Impact of the Study: The information presented here will be crucial in developing strategies to overcome the potential detrimental effects of glyphosate in GR cropping systems.
The rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations generates concern in the agricultural production sector in Brazil. Nonetheless, there is not much information related to the frequency and dispersion of sourgrass throughout recent years. We investigated the frequency and dispersion of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations in Brazilian agricultural regions as part of a larger-scale weed resistance monitoring study. A discriminatory rate of 960 g ae ha−1of glyphosate was used on plants at the 2- to 3-tiller stage, originating from 2,593 populations of sourgrass sampled in 329 counties in 14 Brazilian states between 2012 and 2015. The dispersion of sourgrass populations originated in western Paraná State, next to the Paraguay border, where the first resistance case was reported. Its dispersion to the central region of Brazil, mainly in soybean-producing areas, is most likely a consequence of agricultural equipment movement and wind-mediated dispersal. Glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations were found in every geographical region across all Brazilian states tested. These data highlight the importance of an appropriate weed resistance monitoring program to track the evolution and dispersion of resistance to mitigate these issues by focusing efforts regionally and raising awareness among stakeholders in each region.
Weed resistance to herbicides has been a major issue in Brazil, mainly due to the inefficiency of the herbicides used in no-till areas and to the high cost of these herbicide treatments. Failures in controlling the weed Conyza have been reported in Western and Northern grain crop areas in Paraná (Brazil). This work aimed to evaluate the potential occurrence of C. sumatrensis biotypes resistant to the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl and glyphosate. Experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with four biotypes (Cascavel-2, Toledo-4, Tupãssi-6, and Assis Chateaubriand-7) possibly resistant to, as well as a population considered susceptible to chlorimuron-ethyl and glyphosate. To obtain dose-response curves, eight herbicide doses of chlorimuron-ethyl (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 g ha-1) and glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g e.a. ha-1) were applied and weed control and shoot biomass evaluations were made. Results provided evidence that two biotypes (Cascavel-2 and Tupãssi-6) were resistant to glyphosate and four biotypes (Cascavel-2, Toledo-4, Tupãssi-6 and Assis Chateaubriand-7) were resistant to chlorimuronethyl. Multiple resistance to glyphosate and chlorimuron was confirmed for biotypes Cascavel2 and Tupãssi 6. This is the first report on multiple resistance in Conyza sumatrensis, worldwide.
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