Mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) has been investigated as a potential tool for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases. In OXYS rats suffering from a ROS-induced progeria, very small amounts of SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg per day) added to food were found to prevent development of age-induced cataract and retinopathies of the eye, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in skeletal muscles, as well as a decrease in bone mineralization. Instillation of drops of 250 nM SkQ1 reversed cataract and retinopathies in 3-12-month-old (but not in 24-month-old) OXYS rats. In rabbits, experimental uveitis and glaucoma were induced by immunization with arrestin and injections of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose to the eye anterior sector, respectively. Uveitis was found to be prevented or reversed by instillation of 250 nM SkQ1 drops (four drops per day). Development of glaucoma was retarded by drops of 5 microM SkQ1 (one drop daily). SkQ1 was tested in veterinarian practice. A totally of 271 animals (dogs, cats, and horses) suffering from retinopathies, uveitis, conjunctivitis, and cornea diseases were treated with drops of 250 nM SkQ1. In 242 cases, positive therapeutic effect was obvious. Among animals suffering from retinopathies, 89 were blind. In 67 cases, vision returned after SkQ1 treatment. In ex vivo studies of cultivated posterior retina sector, it was found that 20 nM SkQ1 strongly decreased macrophagal transformation of the retinal pigmented epithelial cells, an effect which might explain some of the above SkQ1 activities. It is concluded that low concentrations of SkQ1 are promising in treating retinopathies, cataract, uveitis, glaucoma, and some other ocular diseases.
Background:Targeting of drugs to the subcellular compartments represents one of the modern trends in molecular pharmacology. The approach for targeting mitochondria was developed nearly 50 years ago, but only in the last decade has it started to become widely used for delivering drugs. A number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, including cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory and metabolic conditions.Objective:This mini-review aims to highlight the role of mitochondria in pathophysiological conditions and diseases, to classify and summarize our knowledge about targeting mitochondria and to review the most important preclinical and clinical data relating to the antioxidant lipophilic cations MitoQ and SkQ1.Methods:This is a review of available information in the PubMed and Clinical Trials databases (US National Library of Medicine) with no limiting period.Results and Conclusion:Mitochondria play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and possibly in aging. Both MitoQ and SkQ1 have shown many beneficial features in animal models and in a few completed clinical trials. More clinical trials and research efforts are needed to understand the signaling pathways influenced by these compounds. The antioxidant lipophilic cations have great potential for the treatment of a wide range of pathologies.
The mitochondria of various tissues from mice, naked mole rats (NMRs), and bats possess two mechanistically similar systems to prevent the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS): hexokinases I and II and creatine kinase bound to mitochondrial membranes. Both systems operate in a manner such that one of the kinase substrates (mitochondrial ATP) is electrophoretically transported by the ATP/ADP antiporter to the catalytic site of bound hexokinase or bound creatine kinase without ATP dilution in the cytosol. One of the kinase reaction products, ADP, is transported back to the mitochondrial matrix via the antiporter, again through an electrophoretic process without cytosol dilution. The system in question continuously supports H+-ATP synthase with ADP until glucose or creatine is available. Under these conditions, the membrane potential, ∆ψ, is maintained at a lower than maximal level (i.e., mild depolarization of mitochondria). This ∆ψ decrease is sufficient to completely inhibit mROS generation. In 2.5-y-old mice, mild depolarization disappears in the skeletal muscles, diaphragm, heart, spleen, and brain and partially in the lung and kidney. This age-dependent decrease in the levels of bound kinases is not observed in NMRs and bats for many years. As a result, ROS-mediated protein damage, which is substantial during the aging of short-lived mice, is stabilized at low levels during the aging of long-lived NMRs and bats. It is suggested that this mitochondrial mild depolarization is a crucial component of the mitochondrial anti-aging system.
Vascular aging is accompanied by increases in circulatory proinflammatory cytokines leading to inflammatory endothelial response implicated in early atherogenesis. To study the possible role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this phenomenon, we applied the effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1, the conjugate of plastoquinone with dodecyltriphenylphosphonium. Eight months treatment of (CBAxC57BL/6) F1 mice with SkQ1 did not prevent age-related elevation of the major proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in serum, but completely abrogated the increase in adhesion molecule ICAM1 expression in aortas of 24-month-old animals. In endothelial cell culture, SkQ1 also attenuated TNF-induced increase in ICAM1, VCAM, and E-selectin expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, and prevented neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial monolayer. Using specific inhibitors to transcription factor NF-κB and stress-kinases p38 and JNK, we demonstrated that TNF-induced ICAM1 expression depends mainly on NF-κB activity and, to a lesser extent, on p38. SkQ1 had no effect on p38 phosphorylation (activation) but significantly reduced NF-κB activation by inhibiting phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of the inhibitory subunit IκBα. The data indicate an important role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in regulation of the NF-κB pathway and corresponding age-related inflammatory activation of endothelium.
Mast cells are a heterogeneous multifunctional cellular population that promotes connective tissue homeostasis by slow release of biologically active substances, affecting primarily the permeability of vessels and vascular tone, maintenance of electrolyte and water balance, and composition of the extracellular matrix. Along with this, they can rapidly release inflammatory mediators and chemotactic factors that ensure the mobilization of effector innate immune cells to fight against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, they play a key role in initiation of allergic reactions. Aggregation of high affinity receptors to IgE (FcεRI) results in rapid degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in intracellular signaling and, in particular, stimulate production of several proinflammatory cytokines that regulate the innate immune response. In this review, we focus on known molecular mechanisms of FcεRI-dependent activation of mast cells and discuss the role of ROS in the regulation of this pathway.
Edited by Michael IbbaKeywords: Hepatitis C virus Porcine teschovirus 3 0 -untranslated region Poly(A) Picornavirus Internal ribosome entry site a b s t r a c t Translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA is directed by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5 0 -untranslated region (5 0 -UTR), and the HCV 3 0 -UTR enhances IRES activity. Since the HCV 30 -UTR has a unique structure among 3 0 -UTRs, we checked possible communication between the 5 0 -and the 3 0 -UTR of HCV during translation using chimeric reporter RNAs. We show that translation directed by the HCV IRES and by the HCV-like IRES of porcine teschovirus (PTV) which belongs to a quite distinct family of viruses (picornaviruses) or by the EMCV IRES is also enhanced by the HCV 3 0 -UTR or by a poly(A)-tail in different cell types.
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