Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and deadly human brain cancer. Early diagnosis through non-invasive biomarkers may render GBM more easily treatable, improving the prognosis of this currently incurable disease. We suggest the use of serum extracellular vesicle (sEV)-derived circular RNAs (circRNAs) as highly stable minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers for GBM diagnosis. EVs were isolated by size exclusion chromatography from sera of 23 GBM and 5 grade 3 glioma (GIII) patients, and 10 unaffected controls (UC). The expression of two candidate circRNAs (circSMARCA5 and circHIPK3) was assayed by droplet digital PCR. CircSMARCA5 and circHIPK3 were significantly less abundant in sEVs from GBM patients with respect to UC (fold-change (FC) of −2.15 and −1.92, respectively) and GIII (FC of −1.75 and −1.4, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, based on the expression of sEV-derived circSMARCA5 and circHIPK3, allowed us to distinguish GBM from UC (area under the curve (AUC) 0.823 (0.667–0.979) and 0.855 (0.704 to 1.000), with a 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively). Multivariable ROC analysis, performed by combining the expression of sEV-derived circSMARCA5 and circHIPK3 with preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte (LMR) ratios, three known diagnostic and prognostic GBM markers, allowed an improvement in the GBM diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.901 (0.7912 to 1.000), 95% CI). Our data suggest sEV-derived circSMARCA5 and circHIPK3 as good diagnostic biomarkers for GBM, especially when associated with preoperative NLR, PLR and LMR.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of RNAs with regulatory functions within cells. We recently showed that circSMARCA5 is a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and acts as a decoy for Serine and Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) through six predicted binding sites (BSs). Here we characterized RNA motifs functionally involved in the interaction between circSMARCA5 and SRSF1. Three different circSMARCA5 molecules (Mut1, Mut2, Mut3), each mutated in two predicted SRSF1 BSs at once, were obtained through PCR-based replacement of wild-type (WT) BS sequences and cloned in three independent pcDNA3 vectors. Mut1 significantly decreased its capability to interact with SRSF1 as compared to WT, based on the RNA immunoprecipitation assay. In silico analysis through the “Find Individual Motif Occurrences” (FIMO) algorithm showed GAUGAA as an experimentally validated SRSF1 binding motif significantly overrepresented within both predicted SRSF1 BSs mutated in Mut1 (q-value = 0.0011). U87MG and CAS-1, transfected with Mut1, significantly increased their migration with respect to controls transfected with WT, as revealed by the cell exclusion zone assay. Immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cells (IM-HBMEC) exposed to conditioned medium (CM) harvested from U87MG and CAS-1 transfected with Mut1 significantly sprouted more than those treated with CM harvested from U87MG and CAS-1 transfected with WT, as shown by the tube formation assay. qRT-PCR showed that the intracellular pro- to anti-angiogenic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) mRNA isoform ratio and the amount of total VEGFA mRNA secreted in CM significantly increased in Mut1-transfected CAS-1 as compared to controls transfected with WT. Our data suggest that GAUGAA is the RNA motif responsible for the interaction between circSMARCA5 and SRSF1 as well as for the circSMARCA5-mediated control of GBM cell migration and angiogenic potential.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and distribution of serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) in a series of 102 cases of both diffuse and circumscribed adult gliomas to establish the potential diagnostic role of this protein in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Methods: This retrospective immunohistochemical study included 42 glioblastoma cases, 21 oligodendrogliomas, 15 ependymomas, 15 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and 4 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas. Results: Most glioblastoma (81%), oligodendroglioma (71%), sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma (80%) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (75%) cases showed strong SRSF1 immunoexpression, while no detectable staining was found in the majority of ependymomas (87% of cases) and pilocytic astrocytomas (67% of cases). Conclusions: The immunohistochemical expression of SRSF1 may be a promising diagnostic marker of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and its increased expression might allow for excluding entities that often enter into differential diagnosis, such as ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas.
Iron complexes with a N2O2‐type N,N′‐bis(salicylaldehyde)‐1,2‐phenylenediamine salophen ligand catalyze the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in acetonitrile with phenol as the proton donor, giving rise to 90–99 % selectivity, faradaic efficiency up to 58 %, and turnover frequency up to 103 s−1 at an overpotential of 0.65 V. This novel class of molecular catalyst for CO2 reduction operate through a mononuclear FeI intermediate, with phenol being involved in the process with first‐order kinetics. The molecular nature of the catalyst and the low cost, easy synthesis and functionalization of the salophen ligand paves the way for catalyst engineering and optimization. Competitive electrodeposition of the coordination complex at the electrode surface results in the formation of iron‐based nanoparticles, which are active towards heterogeneous electrocatalytic processes mainly leading to proton reduction to hydrogen (faradaic efficiency up to 80 %) but also to the direct reduction of CO2 to methane with a faradaic efficiency of 1–2 %.
Extent of tumor resection (EOTR) in glioblastoma surgery plays an important role in improving survival.
To analyze the efficacy, safety and reliability of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images used to guide glioblastoma resection (FLAIRectomy) and to volumetrically measure postoperative EOTR, which was correlated with clinical outcome and survival.
A total of 68 glioblastoma patients (29 males, mean age 65.8) were prospectively enrolled. Hyperintense areas on FLAIR images, surrounding gadolinium-enhancing tissue on T1-weighted MR images, were screened for signal changes suggesting tumor infiltration and evaluated for supramaximal resection. The surgical protocol included 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence, neuromonitoring, and intraoperative imaging tools. 5-ALA fluorescence intensity was analyzed and matched with the different sites on navigated MR, both on postcontrast T1-weighted and FLAIR images. Volumetric evaluation of EOTR on T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences was compared.
FLAIR MR volumetric evaluation documented larger tumor volume than that assessed on contrast-enhancing T1 MR (72.6 vs 54.9 cc); residual tumor was seen in 43 patients; postcontrast T1 MR volumetric analysis showed complete resection in 64 cases. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter was methylated in 8/68 (11.7%) cases; wild type Isocytrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) was found in 66/68 patients. Progression free survival and overall survival (PFS and OS) were 17.43 and 25.11 mo, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between EOTR based on FLAIR, PFS (R2 = 0.46), and OS (R2 = 0.68).
EOTR based on FLAIR and 5-ALA fluorescence is feasible. Safety of resection relies on the use of neuromonitoring and intraoperative multimodal imaging tools. FLAIR-based EOTR appears to be a stronger survival predictor compared to gadolinium-enhancing, T1-based resection.
IST is a significantly large anatomical space where the VA course is rather regular, and its length is sufficient for vascular proximal control purposes. Periarterial venous plexus is less evident at this level, easing the surgical exposure. VA exposition within the IST can be used as an alternative option when space-occupying lesions, scars and stabilisation devices make arterial dissection hazardous in more cranial V3 segments.
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