Recently, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their ability to give rise to different cell types, including chondrocytes. Damaged articular cartilage repair is one of the most challenging issues for regenerative medicine, due to the intrinsic limited capability of cartilage to heal because of its avascular nature. While surgical approaches like chondral autografts and allografts provide symptoms and function improvement only for a short period, MSC based stimulation therapies, like microfracture surgery or autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis demonstrate to be more effective. The use of adult chondrocytes, which are the main cellular constituent of cartilage, in medical practice, is indeed limited due to their instability in monolayer culture and difficulty to collect donor tissue (articular and nasal cartilage). The most recent cartilage engineering approaches combine cells, biomaterial scaffold and bioactive factors to promote functional tissue replacements. Many recent evidences demonstrate that scaffolds providing specific microenvironmental conditions can promote MSCs differentiation toward a functional phenotype. In the present work, the chondrogenic potential of a new Collagen I based 3D scaffold has been assessed in vitro, in combination with human adipose-derived MSCs which possess a higher chondrogenic potential compared to MSCs isolated from other tissues. Our data indicate that the scaffold was able to promote the early stages of chondrogenic commitment and that supplementation of specific soluble factors was able to induce the complete differentiation of MSCs in chondrocytes as demonstrated by the appearance of cartilage distinctive markers (Sox 9, Aggrecan, Matrilin-1, and Collagen II), as well as by the cartilage-specific Alcian Blue staining and by the acquisition of typical cellular morphology. Such evidences suggest that the investigated scaffold formulation could be suitable for the production of medical devices that can be beneficial in the field of articular cartilage engineering, thus improving the efficacy and durability of the current therapeutic options.
The bone grafting is the classical way to treat large bone defects. Among the available techniques, autologous bone grafting is still the most used but, however, it can cause complications such as infection and donor site morbidity. Alternative and innovative methods rely on the development of biomaterials mimicking the structure and properties of natural bone. In this study, we characterized a cell-free scaffold, which was subcutaneously implanted in mice and then analyzed both in vivo and ex vivo after 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Two types of biomaterials, made of either collagen alone or collagen plus magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite have been used. The results indicate that bone augmentation and angiogenesis could spontaneously occur into the biomaterial, probably by the recruitment of host cells, and that the composition of the scaffolds is crucial. In particular, the biomaterial more closely mimicking the native bone drives the process of bone augmentation more efficiently. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry demonstrate the expression of typical markers of osteogenesis by the host cells populating the scaffold. Our data suggest that this biomaterial could represent a promising tool for the reconstruction of large bone defects, without using exogenous living cells or growth factors.
Traumatic injury or surgical excision of diseased bone tissue usually require the reconstruction of large bone defects unable to heal spontaneously, especially in older individuals. This is a big challenge requiring the development of biomaterials mimicking the bone structure and capable of inducing the right commitment of cells seeded within the scaffold. In particular, given their properties and large availability, the human adipose-derived stem cells are considered as the better candidate for autologous cell transplantation. In order to evaluate the regenerative potential of these cells along with an osteoinductive biomaterial, we have used collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds to test ectopic bone formation after subcutaneous implantation in mice. The process was analysed both in vivo, by Fluorescent Molecular Tomography (FMT), and ex vivo, to evaluate the formation of bone and vascular structures. The results have shown that the biomaterial could itself be able of promoting differentiation of host cells and bone formation, probably by means of its intrinsic chemical and structural properties, namely the microenvironment. However, when charged with human mesenchymal stem cells, the ectopic bone formation within the scaffold was increased. We believe that these results represent an important advancement in the field of bone physiology, as well as in regenerative medicine.
Advances in functional imaging are supporting neurosurgery and radiotherapy for glioblastoma, which still remains the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis. The typical infiltration pattern of glioblastoma, which impedes a complete surgical resection, is coupled with a high rate of invasiveness and radioresistance, thus further limiting efficient therapy, leading to inevitable and fatal recurrences. Hypoxia is of crucial importance in gliomagenesis and, besides reducing radiotherapy efficacy, also induces cellular and molecular mediators that foster proliferation and invasion. In this review, we aimed at analyzing the biological mechanism of glioblastoma invasiveness and radioresistance in hypoxic niches of glioblastoma. We also discussed the link between hypoxia and radiation-induced radioresistance with activation of SRC proto-oncogene non-receptor tyrosine kinase, prospecting potential strategies to overcome the current limitation in glioblastoma treatment.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.