An integrated system for rapid PCR-based analysis on a microchip has been demonstrated. The system couples a compact thermal cycling assembly based on dual Peltier thermoelectric elements with a microchip gel electrophoresis platform. This configuration allows fast (approximately 1 min/ cycle) and efficient DNA amplification on-chip followed by electrophoretic sizing and detection on the same chip. An on-chip DNA concentration technique has been incorporated into the system to further reduce analysis time by decreasing the number of thermal cycles required. The concentration injection scheme enables detection of PCR products after performing as few as 10 thermal cycles, with a total analysis time of less than 20 min. The starting template copy number was less than 15 per injection volume.
Fluorescently labeled proteins were electrophoretically concentrated on microfabricated devices prior to separation and laser-induced fluorescence detection on the same device. The proteins were concentrated using a porous silica membrane between adjacent microchannels that allowed the passage of buffer ions but excluded larger migrating molecules. Concentrated analytes were then injected into the separation column for analysis. Two basic microchip designs were tested that allowed sample concentration either directly in the sample injector loop or within the microchannel leading from the sample reservoir to the injector. Signal enhancements of approximately 600-fold were achieved by on-chip preconcentration followed by SDS-CGE separation. Preconcentration for CE analysis in both coated and uncoated open channels was also demonstrated. Fluorescently labeled ovalbumin could be detected at initial concentrations as low as 100 fM by using a combination of field-amplified injection and preconcentration at a membrane prior to CE in coated channels.
A microfabricated injection valve incorporating a porous membrane structure is reported that enables electrokinetic concentration of DNA samples using homogeneous buffer conditions followed by injection into a channel for electrophoretic analysis. The porous membrane was incorporated in the microchannel manifold by having two channels separated from each other by 3-12 microns and connected by a thin porous silicate layer. This design allows the passage of current to establish an electrical connection between the separated channels but prevents large molecules, e.g., DNA, from traversing the membrane. Concentrated DNA can be injected into the separation channel and electrophoretically analyzed. Experiments exhibit a nonlinear increase in concentration with time, and DNA fragments can be concentrated up to 2 orders of magnitude as shown by comparison of peak intensities for analysis performed with and without concentration.
Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were carried out on as many as four DNA samples at a time on a microchip device. The PCR products were then analyzed, either individually or together on the same device, by microchip gel electrophoresis. A standard PCR protocol was used to amplify 199- and 500-base pair (bp) regions of bacteriophage lambda DNA and 346- and 410-bp regions of E. coli genomic and plasmid DNAs, respectively. Thermal lysis of the bacteria was integrated into the PCR cycle. A product sizing medium, poly(dimethylacrylamide), and an intercalating dye for fluorescence detection were used in the electrophoretic analysis of the products. PCR product sizes were determined by coelectrophoresis with marker DNA.
o-Nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl and a number of related groups have been tested for the photolabile protection of nucleoside 5'-hydroxyls. The rates of photodeprotection were found to vary by approximately 17-fold in a series of 5'-O-protected thymidine derivatives irradiated at 365 nm under identical conditions. The homologous 2-(o-nitrophenyl)ethoxycarbonyl group and its derivatives were found to be removed approximately 2-fold faster than the corresponding o-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl group, possibly due to an increased rate of o~-hydrogen abstraction by the photo-excited nitro group. Photolysis rates were affected by substitutions on both the phenyl ring and m-carbon, with the strongest rate enhancements caused by the presence of a methyl or second o-nitrophenyl group in the tx-position. Among the ring-substituted derivatives studied, o-nitro and o-iodo had the strongest enhancement effects on photodeprotection, while an o-fluoro group reduced the rate of photodeprotection. In general, substitutions at other positions on the phenyl ring had less effect on photolysis rates. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.The use of photolabile protecting groups in nucleic acid 1-8, carbohydrate 9, and peptide 10-12 chemistry has been well established. More recently, photolabile protection of the 5'-hydroxyl of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 3'-phosphoramidites has been employed in the solid-phase synthesis of DNA probe arrays. 13-16 Useful photolabile protecting groups must be stable to mild chemical treatments, but photolytically cleaved in high yield by irradiation at wavelengths which do not damage the protected molecule.The o-nitrobenzyl group or groups containing this photosensitive moiety have been used for photolabile protection of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, thiol, and carbonyl functions. 17 The removal of photolabile groups from a protected hydroxyl oxygen by irradiation at wavelengths >320 nm involves abstraction of a hydrogen from the m-methylene carbon by the excited nitro group followed by rearrangement to o-nitrosobenzaldehyde and the deprotected alcohol. In the case of the 2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl group, carbon dioxide is also released (Fig. 1). The quantum yield of photodeprotection may be strongly influenced by substitution on the phenyl ring or methylene carbon of the o-nitrobenzyl group. Reichmanis et al. 18 reported a 5-fold increase in quantum yield for photocleavage of the o-nitrobenzyl esters of trimethylacetic acid when the parent ester is substituted with an s-methyl group. 4247
O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT; DNA-O6-methylguanine:protein-L-cysteine S-methyltransferase, EC 184.108.40.206), a unique DNA repair protein present in most organisms, removes the carcinogenic and mutagenic adduct O6-alkylguanine from DNA by stoichiometrically accepting the alkyl group on a cysteine residue in a suicide reaction. The mammalian protein is highly regulated in both somatic and germ-line cells. In addition, the toxicity of certain alkylating drugs in tumor and normal cells is inversely related to the levels of this protein. The cDNA of the human gene, henceforth named MGMT, has been cloned in an expression vector on the basis of its rescue of a methyltransferase-deficient (ada-) Escherichia coli host. A 22-kDa active methyltransferase encoded entirely by the cDNA contains an amino acid sequence of 61 residues that bears 60-65% similarity with segments of E. coli methyltransferase (products of the ada and ogt genes), which encompass the alkyl-acceptor residues. The human cDNA has no sequence similarity with the ada and ogt genes, due in part to differences in codon usage, and shows no detectable homology with E. coli genomic DNA. However, it hybridizes with distinct restriction fragments of human, mouse, and rat DNAs. The lack of methyltransferase observed in many human cell lines is due to the absence of the MGMT gene or to lack of synthesis and/or stability of its 0.95-kilobase poly(A)+ RNA transcript.
Proteins were separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis and labeled on-chip by postcolumn addition of a fluorogenic dye, NanoOrange, for detection by laser-induced fluorescence. NanoOrange binds noncovalently with hydrophobic protein regions to form highly fluorescent complexes. Kinetic measurements of complex formation on the microchips suggest that the reaction rate is near the diffusion limit under the conditions used for protein separation. Little or no band broadening is caused by the postcolumn labeling step. Lower limits of detection for model proteins, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and beta-lactoglobulin B, were <0.5 pg (approximately 30 amol) of injected sample. The relative fluorescence and reaction rates are compared with those of a number of other fluorogenic dyes used for protein labeling.
Measurement of exercise-induced increases in BNPs more than doubles the sensitivity of the exercise test for detecting ischemia with no loss of specificity.
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