The involvement of highly reactive oxygen-derived free radicals (ROS) in the genesis and progression of various cardiovascular diseases, including arrhythmias, aortic dilatation, aortic dissection, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary arterial disease and congestive heart failure, is well-established. It has also been suggested that ROS may play a role in aortic aneurysm formation in patients with Marfan’s syndrome (MFS). This syndrome is a multisystem disorder with manifestations including cardiovascular, skeletal, pulmonary and ocular systems, however, aortic aneurysm and dissection are still the most life-threatening manifestations of MFS. In this review, we will concentrate on the impact of oxidative stress on aneurysm formation in patients with MFS as well as on possible beneficial effects of some agents with antioxidant properties. Mechanisms responsible for oxidative stress in the MFS model involve a decreased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as enhanced expression of NAD(P)H oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and xanthine oxidase. The results of studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species may be involved in smooth muscle cell phenotype switching and apoptosis as well as matrix metalloproteinase activation, resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The progression of the thoracic aortic aneurysm was suggested to be associated with markedly impaired aortic contractile function and decreased nitric oxide-mediated endothelial-dependent relaxation.
Thalassemia, a chronic disease with chronic anemia, is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene, leading to reduced levels or complete deficiency of β-globin chain synthesis. Patients with β-thalassemia display variable clinical severity which ranges from asymptomatic features to severe transfusion-dependent anemia and complications in multiple organs. They not only are at increased risk of blood-borne infections resulting from multiple transfusions, but they also show enhanced susceptibility to infections as a consequence of coexistent immune deficiency. Enhanced susceptibility to infections in β-thalassemia patients is associated with the interplay of several complex biological processes. β-thalassemia-related abnormalities of the innate immune system include decreased levels of complement, properdin, and lysozyme, reduced absorption and phagocytic ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, disturbed chemotaxis, and altered intracellular metabolism processes. According to available literature data, immunological abnormalities observed in patients with thalassemia can be caused by both the disease itself as well as therapies. The most important factors promoting such alterations involve iron overload, phenotypical and functional abnormalities of immune system cells resulting from chronic inflammation oxidative stress, multiple blood transfusion, iron chelation therapy, and splenectomy. Unravelling the mechanisms underlying immune deficiency in β-thalassemia patients may enable the designing of appropriate therapies for this group of patients.
Chronic kidney disease is a health problem whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. The kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of minerals and bone health and therefore, even at the early stages of CKD, disturbances in bone metabolism are observed. In the course of CKD, various bone turnover or mineralization disturbances can develop including adynamic hyperparathyroid, mixed renal bone disease, osteomalacia. The increased risk of fragility fractures is present at any age in these patients. Nutritional treatment of patients with advanced stages of CKD is aiming at prevention or correction of signs, symptoms of renal failure, avoidance of protein-energy wasting (PEW), delaying or prevention of the occurrence of mineral/bone disturbances, and delaying the start of dialysis. The results of studies suggest that progressive protein restriction is beneficial with the progression of renal insufficiency; however, other aspects of dietary management of CKD patients, including changes in sodium, phosphorus, and energy intake, as well as the source of protein and lipids (animal or plant origin) should also be considered carefully. Energy intake must cover patients’ energy requirement, in order to enable correct metabolic adaptation in the course of protein-restricted regimens and prevent negative nitrogen balance and protein-energy wasting.
Arthritis is the most common joint disease. It impairs patients quality of life on account of the associated chronic pain and loss of joint function. The thumb is the most important digit of the hand and trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (carpometacarpal arthritis / CMC-1 arthritis) may significantly compromise functions of the entire hand. CMC-1 arthritis produces several non-specific symptoms, affecting mainly postmenopausal women. The risk of developing CMC-1 arthritis increases with age.Considering these facts, knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and diagnosis of CMC-1 arthritis should be widely disseminated and based on evidence-based medicine. The first step in the diagnostic work-up is a detailed history and clinical examination where the use of more sensitive tests than the grind test, e.g. the pressure-shear test, is recommended. It is advisable to widen the classic radiographic views with additional thumb projections such as Roberts view. The use of magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography is only advised in special individual cases.This paper aims to present the most up-to-date knowledge about: (1) the anatomy and biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint, (2) the epidemiology of CMC-1 arthritis and (3) its diagnosis. It is based on the latest literature (mainly works published in the last 5 years) acquired from databases such as PubMed, Clinical Key and Science Direct. The article is the first of a two-part series that presents a diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm for CMC-1 arthritis. The authors believe that it may contribute to broadening knowledge about CMC-1 arthritis, optimizing the therapeutic process and improving care for patients with CMC-1 arthritis in Poland.
Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (carpometacarpal arthritis / CMC-1 arthritis) is a common cause of chronic thumb pain and may significantly worsen patients quality of life. The thumb is the most important digit of the hand. A diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm for CMC-1 arthritis should be widely known and based on up-to-date evidence-based medical knowledge. The literature describes many medical and surgical treatment approaches. The methods used vary between hospitals and clinics. They also depend on patients financial capabilities and many other factors.Medical (conservative) treatment appears to be effective in 60% of cases, in particular when the synergy of combining several treatment methods is taken advantage of. The most commonly performed surgical procedures in CMC-1 arthritis fall into two major groups, namely trapeziectomy or arthroplasty. However, there is no proof of superiority of one surgical treatment method over the others, and all of them have their advantages and disadvantages.This paper aims to present the most up-to-date knowledge about: (1) conservative and (2) surgical treatments for CMC-1 arthritis and (3) to propose a diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm for this condition. It is based on the latest literature (mainly works published in the last 5 years) acquired from databases such as PubMed, Clinical Key and Science Direct. The article is the second of a two-part series that presents a diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm for CMC-1 arthritis. The authors believe that it may contribute to broadening knowledge about CMC-1 arthritis, optimizing the therapeutic process and improving care for patients with CMC-1 arthritis in Poland.
A talus fracture accompanied by trochlear dislocation is an ever-present therapeutic problem as it requires immediate surgery since any delay may result in necrosis of soft tissues and the talus, which, consequently, leads to permanent disability. Of crucial importance in the treatment of such injury is accurate analysis of fracture morphology, immediate institution of treatment and minimally invasive surgery allowing early movement of the affected limb. We operated on a male patient after a high-energy injury using a low-invasive method we had modified, which allowed for early kinesiotherapy. The functional outcome of the procedure was very good.
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