In its early stages, symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are usually not apparent. Significant reduction of the kidney function is the first obvious sign of disease. If diagnosed early (stages 1 to 3), the progression of CKD can be altered and complications reduced. In stages 4 and 5 extensive kidney damage is observed, which usually results in end-stage renal failure. Currently, the diagnosis of CKD is made usually on the levels of blood urea and serum creatinine (sCr), however, sCr has been shown to be lacking high predictive value. Due to the development of genomics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, the introduction of novel techniques will allow for the identification of novel biomarkers in renal diseases. This review presents some new possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of CKD and in the prediction of outcome, including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), uromodulin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), miRNA, ncRNA, and lincRNA biomarkers and proteomic and metabolomic biomarkers. Complicated pathomechanisms of CKD development and progression require not a single marker but their combination in order to mirror all types of alterations occurring in the course of this disease. It seems that in the not so distant future, conventional markers may be exchanged for new ones, however, confirmation of their efficacy, sensitivity and specificity as well as the reduction of analysis costs are required.
The sirtuins, silent mating-type information regulation 2 (SIRTs), are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylases with important roles in regulating energy metabolism and senescence. Activation of SIRTs appears to have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and antioxidants, prompting investigation of the roles of these proteins in atherogenesis. Although clinical data are currently limited, the availability and safety of SIRT activators such as metformin and resveratrol provide an excellent opportunity to conduct research to better understand the role of SIRTs in human atherosclerosis. Encouraging observations from preclinical studies necessitate rigorous large, prospective, randomized clinical trials to determine the roles of SIRT activators on the progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately on cardiac outcomes, such as myocardial infarction and mortality.
BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem which prevalence is constantly raising, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Both diabetes mellitus types (DMT1 and DMT2) are associated with high risk of developing chronic complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis.MethodsThis is a review of available articles concerning HDL subfractions profile in diabetes mellitus and the related cardiovascular risk. In this review, HDL dysfunction in diabetes, the impact of HDL alterations on the risk diabetes development as well as the association between disturbed HDL particle in DM and cardiovascular risk is discussed.ResultsChanges in the amount of circulation lipids, including triglycerides and LDL cholesterol as well as the HDL are frequent also in the course of DMT1 and DMT2. In normal state HDL exerts various antiatherogenic properties, including reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. However, it has been suggested that in pathological state HDL becomes “dysfunctional” which means that relative composition of lipids and proteins in HDL, as well as enzymatic activities associated to HDL, such as paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 11 (Lp-PLA2) are altered. HDL properties are compromised in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), due to oxidative modification and glycation of the HDL protein as well as the transformation of the HDL proteome into a proinflammatory protein. Numerous studies confirm that the ability of HDL to suppress inflammatory signals is significantly reduced in this group of patients. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remains to be unravelled in vivo.ConclusionsThe understanding of pathological mechanisms underlying HDL dysfunction may enable the development of therapies targeted at specific subpopulations and focusing at the diminishing of cardiovascular risk.
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients’ nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients.
Numerous studies have indicated that the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is strictly associated with the accumulation of toxic metabolites in blood and other metabolic compartments. This accumulation was suggested to be related to enhanced generation of toxins from the dysbiotic microbiome accompanied by their reduced elimination by impaired kidneys. Intestinal microbiota play a key role in the accumulation of uremic toxins due to the fact that numerous uremic solutes are generated in the process of protein fermentation by colonic microbiota. Some disease states, including CKD, are associated with the presence of dysbiosis, which can be defined as an “imbalanced intestinal microbial community with quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota”. The results of studies have confirmed the altered composition and functions of gut microbial community in chronic kidney disease. In the course of CKD protein-bound uremic toxins, including indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, p-cresyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid are progressively accumulated. The presence of chronic kidney disease may be accompanied by the development of intestinal inflammation and epithelial barrier impairment leading to hastened systemic translocation of bacterial-derived uremic toxins and consequent oxidative stress injury to the kidney, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. These findings offer new therapeutic possibilities for the management of uremia, inflammation and kidney disease progression and the prevention of adverse outcomes in CKD patients. It seems that dietary interventions comprising prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics could pose a promising strategy in the management of uremic toxins in CKD.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem with steadily increasing occurrence. Significantly elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been observed in CKD. Cardiovascular diseases are the most important and frequent cause of death of CKD patients globally. The presence of CKD is related to disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism whose consequences are dyslipidemia and the accumulation of atherogenic particles. CKD not only fuels the reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, but also it modifies the composition of this lipoprotein. The key role of HDL is the participation in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues to the liver. Moreover, HDL prevents the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects against the adverse effects of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) on the endothelium. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of HDL to promote the production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells (ECs) and to exert antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing evidence suggests that in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders, HDLs may lose important antiatherosclerotic properties and become dysfunctional. So far, no therapeutic strategy to raise HDL, or alter the ratio of HDL subfractions, has been successful in slowing the progression of CKD or reducing cardiovascular disease in patients either with or without CKD.
Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension). It has been suggested that plant proteins may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as results in milder renal tissue damage when compared to animal proteins. The National Kidney Foundation recommends vegetarianism, or part-time vegetarian diet as being beneficial to CKD patients. Their recommendations are supported by the results of studies demonstrating that a plant-based diet may hamper the development or progression of some complications of chronic kidney disease, such as heart disease, protein loss in urine, and the progression of kidney damage. However, there are sparse reports suggesting that a vegan diet is not appropriate for CKD patients and those undergoing dialysis due to the difficulty in consuming enough protein and in maintaining proper potassium and phosphorus levels. Therefore, this review will focus on the problem as to whether vegetarian diet and its modifications are suitable for chronic kidney disease patients.
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