Presenting syndromes in severe malaria depend on age, although the incidence and the strong prognostic significance of coma and acidosis are similar at all ages. Age is an independent risk factor for a fatal outcome of the disease.
BackgroundSnake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4 / 100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4–789.2 /100,000 person years). Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71%) receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital.Conclusions/SignificanceIncidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.
In Bangladesh, morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased over the last few decades. Hypertension is an important risk factor for NCDs, specifically cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Bangladesh. Data for this analysis were collected during the national NCD Risk Factor Survey of Bangladesh conducted in 2010 from a representative sample of men and women, aged 25 years or above. The survey adopted a multistage, geographically clustered, probability-based sampling approach. WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, behavioral risk factors, and physical measurements. Overall, 20% of the study population were hypertensive at study measurement. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age and body mass index(BMI). Twelve percent of the population were previously diagnosed with hypertension. Among these individuals, nearly half were not taking any medications to control their hypertension. Additionally, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was 43%, with higher levels among males, older age groups, and those with higher education, higher wealth index and high BMI. Predictors of hypertension, included older age, high BMI and diabetes comorbidity. Based on this study, we estimate that 1 out of 5 Bangladeshi adults have hypertension. The risk of hypertension increases with older age and high BMI. Additionally, prevalence of pre-hypertension is high in Bangladesh in both rural and urban areas. Findings from this study can be used to inform public health programming to control the spread of NCDs in Bangladesh.
Background : Suicide is a public health problem too often neglected by researchers, health policy makers and the medical profession. In the year 2000, approximately one million people died of suicide which represents a global mortality rate of 16 per 100,000. According to WHO estimates for the year 2020 and based on current trends approximately 1.53 million people will die from suicide and 10-20 times more people will attempt suicide worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the community prevalence of suicidal attempts and deaths in rural area of Bangladesh and to find out the relationship between suicide and socio-demographic variables. Study Design and Setting : A Community based survey was carried out by members of the Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardi Medical College and Hospital at Mominpur union under Sadar Upazilla of district Chuadanga. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16. Results : A total of 3551 households were surveyed covering 12422 individuals. A total of 35 individuals attempted suicide in last one year and of them 16 died and rest of he 19 survived. One year incidence of suicidal attempt in the study area was 281.8 per thousand population and the incidence of suicidal deaths was 128.8 per 100000 population. Median age of the people attempted or committed suicide was 30.36(range12 to 70 years). Most (42.9%) suicide was attempted by people at their twenties (20–29 years). Male to female ratio was around 1:4. Around 33.3% of the people who attempted or committed suicide studied up to secondary level, 28.6% studied up to primary level. Most (55.2%) of the people who committed or attempted suicide were housewives,10.3% were daily basis worker, 6.9% were students, another 6.9% engaged in agricultural work and 3.4% were disabled. Majority (45.7%) of the people who committed or attempted suicide was of lower class, 37.1% were of lower middle class, 14.3% were of middle class and 2.9% were of upper class. Majority (82.9%) of the person attempted suicide or died of suicide were married. Around 57% had discord in the family, around 23% had at least one relative died of suicide, around 17% of them were suffering from chronic diseases. Two of them were substance abuser. One of them had preexisting mental disorder, two (5.8%) were orphan and around seven (20%) made an attempt before the current one. Conclusion: Community survey in a rural area of South-West Bangladesh revealed that suicide is a major cause of mortality, especially in young females. Although this study results were from a small population of a community, the high rate of deaths from suicide are alarming and warrants further studies in regional and national level to find out the risk factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jom.v13i1.10042 JOM 2012; 13(1): 3-9
Although delayed progression to neurologic illness following Nipah fever was not observed, persistent fatigue and functional impairment was frequent. Neurologic sequelae were frequent following Nipah encephalitis. Neurologic dysfunction may persist for years after acute infection, and new neurologic dysfunction may develop after acute illness. Survivors of NiV infection may experience substantial long-term neurologic and functional morbidity.
BackgroundAmBisome therapy for VL has an excellent efficacy and safety profile and has been adopted as a first-line regimen in Bangladesh. Second-line treatment options are limited and should preferably be given in short course combinations in order to prevent the development of resistant strains. Combination regimens including AmBisome, paromomycin and miltefosine have proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of VL in India. In the present study, the safety and efficacy of these same combinations were assessed in field conditions in Bangladesh.MethodsThe safety and efficacy of three combination regimens: a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 7 subsequent days of miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 10 subsequent days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) and 10 days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) + miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), were compared with a standard regimen of AmBisome 15 mg/kg given in 5 mg/kg doses on days 1, 3 and 5. This was a phase III open label, individually randomized clinical trial. Patients from 5 to 60 years with uncomplicated primary VL were recruited from the Community Based Medical College Bangladesh (CBMC,B) and the Upazila Health Complexes of Trishal, Bhaluka and Fulbaria (all located in Mymensingh district), and randomly assigned to one of the treatments. The objective was to assess safety and definitive cure at 6 months after treatment.Results601 patients recruited between July 2010 and September 2013 received either AmBisome monotherapy (n = 158), AmBisome + paromomycin (n = 159), AmBisome + miltefosine (n = 142) or paromomycin + miltefosine (n = 142). At 6 months post- treatment, final cure rates for the intention-to-treat population were 98.1% (95%CI 96.0–100) for AmBisome monotherapy, 99.4% (95%CI 98.2–100) for the AmBisome + paromomycin arm, 94.4% (95%CI 90.6–98.2) for the AmBisome + miltefosine arm, and 97.9% (95%CI 95.5–100) for paromomycin + miltefosine arm. There were 12 serious adverse events in the study in 11 patients that included 3 non-study drug related deaths. There were no relapses or PKDL up to 6 months follow-up. All treatments were well tolerated with no unexpected side effects. Adverse events were most frequent during treatment with miltefosine + paromomycin, three serious adverse events related to the treatment occurred in this arm, all of which resolved.ConclusionNone of the combinations were inferior to AmBisome in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. All the combinations demonstrated excellent overall efficacy, were well tolerated and safe, and could be deployed under field conditions in Bangladesh. The trial was conducted by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) and the Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College (ShSMC), Dhaka, in collaboration with the trial sites and sponsored by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi).Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01122771
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.