The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52–56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers) in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this investigation provide ecological data that should contribute to the conservation and economic exploitation of A. coriacea.
Ants and dung beetles are widely used in monitoring biodiversity and are considered excellent environmental indicators. Although the pitfall trap is the most commonly used method to sample dung beetles and ants in ecological studies, beetles are usually sampled using dung‐baited pitfall traps while ants are sampled using un‐baited pitfalls. In the protocol for collecting the beetles it is necessary to have attractive baits in pitfalls. In order to minimize collection effort and costs and to facilitate logistics, it is necessary to determine if there is an effect of the baits on the biodiversity of ants collected in the same traps. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find out whether baited pitfalls could replace conventional pitfalls for the capture of ants. In a total of 42 areas of native habitat, three baited pitfall traps and three without bait were installed, all in the same transect, equidistant ten meters and in activity for 48 hours. In total, 150 species were collected, of which 131 were recorded in non‐baited pitfalls and 107 in baited pitfalls. Traps without bait contributed to 28% of the total number of species captured in this study, whereas pitfalls with bait contributed only to 12% of the total species caught. However, 60% of the total species were captured regardless of the method. In addition to the loss of species among the types of traps, the effect of the method modifies the species composition. We concluded that depending on the type of study, a small decrease in the number of species and change in the composition can influence the results. Thus, we recommend that baited pitfalls should not replace conventional pitfalls.Palavras-chave: Método de coleta; Protocolo de coleta; Desenho da amostra; Esforço de amostragem.
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