The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors.
BackgroundMalaria is a vector-borne parasitic disease which is prevalent in many developing countries. Recently, it has been found that Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite can be life-threatening to humans. Long-tailed macaques, which are widely distributed in Malaysia, are the natural hosts for simian malaria, including P. knowlesi. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of simian malaria parasites in long-tailed macaques in the district of Hulu Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia.MethodsA total of 70 blood samples were collected from Macaca fascicularis dwelling in the forest of Hulu Selangor by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. DNA was extracted using PureLink™ Genomic DNA Kits. Conventional and nested PCR were used to detect the genus and species of Plasmodium parasites respectively. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was carried out to confirm the species of Plasmodium parasites.ResultsThirty-five (50 %) of the 70 samples were positive for Plasmodium using genus-specific primers. These positive samples were then subjected to nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA genes to detect all five simian malaria parasites: namely, P. knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium fieldi, and Plasmodium coatneyi. All five species of simian malaria parasites were detected. Of these, P. inui was the predominant (65.7 %), followed by P. knowlesi (60 %), P. cynomolgi (51.4 %) P. coatneyi (45.7 %) and P.fieldi (2.9 %). A total of nine macaques had mono-infection with P. knowlesi (four), P. cynomolgi (two), P. coatneyi (two) and P. fieldi (one). Eleven of the macaques had dual infections while 12 had triple infections. Three macaques were infected with four species of Plasmodium. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the five species of Plasmodium parasites.ConclusionThis study has provided evidence to elucidate the presence of transmission of malaria parasites among the local macaques in Hulu Selangor. Since malaria is a zoonosis, it is important to determine the new control strategies for the control of malaria.
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as one of the major underlying mechanisms behind many acute and chronic diseases. However, the measurement of free radicals or their end products is complicated. Isoprostanes, derived from the non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid are now considered to be reliable biomarkers of oxidant stress in the human body. Isoprostanes are involved in many of the human diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes elevated levels of F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) have been observed. The measurement of bioactive F2-IsoPs levels offers a unique noninvasive analytical tool to study the role of free radicals in physiology, oxidative stress-related diseases, and acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Measurement of oxidative stress by various other methods lacks specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to shed light on the implemention of F2-IsoPs measurement as a gold-standard biomarker of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetics.
An in-vitro culture system was developed in which primary mouse follicles from 12-16-day-old mice grew to the preovulatory stage. The important determinants of growth in culture were the inclusion of stroma with the primary follicles, the age of the mouse, the presence of FSH and LH, the use of culture dishes with a hydrophobic membrane and the use of post-menopausal human serum to supply growth factors. During culture the pieces of ovarian tissue containing the primary follicles coalesced to form characteristic spherical clusters. The cultured follicles appeared to be normal as determined by the appearance and organization of the granulosa cells, the appearance of the antrum and the accompanying steroidogenesis, but the ova had not resumed meiosis. The results show that the growth of mouse follicles starting from the primary stage is critically dependent on adequate concentrations of FSH.
Type 2 diabetes consists of progressive hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell failure which could result from glucose toxicity, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigate the effect of pretreatment with Gelam honey (Melaleuca spp.) and the individual flavonoid components chrysin, luteolin, and quercetin, on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell viability, lipid peroxidation, and insulin content in hamster pancreatic cells (HIT-T15 cells), cultured under normal and hyperglycemic conditions. Phenolic extracts from a local Malaysian species of Gelam honey (Melaleuca spp.) were prepared using the standard extraction methods. HIT-T15 cells were cultured in 5 % CO2 and then preincubated with Gelam honey extracts (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/ml) as well as some of its flavonoid components chrysin, luteolin, and quercetin (20, 40, 60, and 80 μM), prior to stimulation by 20 and 50 mM of glucose. The antioxidative effects were measured in these cultured cells at different concentrations and time point by DCFH-DA assay. Pretreatment of cells with Gelam honey extract or the flavonoid components prior to culturing in 20 or 50 mM glucose showed a significant decrease in the production of ROS, glucose-induced lipid peroxidation, and a significant increase in insulin content and the viability of cells cultured under hyperglycemic condition. Our results show the in vitro antioxidative property of the Gelam honey and the flavonoids on the β-cells from hamsters and its cytoprotective effect against hyperglycemia.
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of glutamine and insulin on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and inflammatory cytokines in hyperglycemic umbilical vein endothelial cells.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown and subjected to glutamine and insulin to examine the effects of these agents on the hyperglycemic state. Mitochondrial function and the production of inflammatory cytokines were assessed using fluorescence analysis and multiple cytotoxicity assays. Apoptosis was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay.RESULTS:Glutamine maintains the integrity of the mitochondria by reducing the cell permeability and cytochrome c levels and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. The cytochrome c level was significantly (p<0.005) reduced when the cells were treated with glutamine. An apoptosis assay revealed significantly reduced apoptosis (p<0.005) in the glutamine-treated cells. Moreover, glutamine alone or in combination with insulin modulated inflammatory cytokine levels. Interleukin-10, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were up-regulated while tumor necrosis factor-α was down-regulated after treatment with glutamine.CONCLUSIONS:Glutamine, either alone or in combination with insulin, can positively modulate the mitochondrial stress and cell permeability in umbilical vein endothelial cells. Glutamine regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and maintains the balance of the mitochondria in a cytoprotective manner.
Background. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is critically involved in the impairment of β-cell function during the development of diabetes. Methods. HIT-T15 cells were cultured in 5% CO2 and then preincubated with Gelam honey extracts (20, 40, 60, and 80 µg/mL) as well as quercetin (20, 40, 60, and 80 µM), prior to stimulation by 20 and 50 mM of glucose. Cell lysate was collected to determine the effect of honey extracts and quercetin on the stress activated NF-κB, MAPK pathways, and the Akt (ser473) activated insulin signaling pathway. Results. HIT-T15 cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions demonstrated insulin resistance with a significant increase in the levels of MAPK, NF-κB, and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (ser307); however, Akt expression and insulin contents are significantly decreased. Pretreatment with quercetin and Gelam honey extract improved insulin resistance and insulin content by reducing the expression of MAPK, NF-κB, and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (ser307) and increasing the expression of Akt significantly. Conclusion. Gelam honey-induced differential expression of MAPK, NF-κB, IRS-1 (ser307), and Akt in HIT-T15 cells shows that Gelam honey exerts protective effects against diabetes- and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress by improving insulin content and insulin resistance.
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