ResumoConsiderando que a colheita é a etapa final de um processo produtivo e que as perdas devem ser mantidas dentro de padrões aceitáveis, as regulagens das colhedoras e as características agronômicas da cultura deverão permitir menores perdas quantitativas para que possa atingir o máximo nível de qualidade e maior sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as perdas quantitativas, distribuição de palha e características operacionais da colhedora por meio do controle estatístico de processo, bem como verificar a qualidade da operação de colheita. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Santa Juliana (MG), com as coordenadas geográficas de referência 19 o 18'Se 47 o 31'O. A área amostrada constou de 40 pontos distribuídos em malha retangular, equidistantes de 50 m, definidos sequencialmente a partir do momento de início da colheita. Em cada ponto foi determinado o teor de água dos grãos, número de vagens por planta, altura de inserção de primeira vagem, altura de plantas, produtividade, distribuição de palha e características operacionais da colhedora. A perda de grãos ocasionada pela colhedora esteve fora dos limites de controle, porém dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de perdas para cultura da soja. A qualidade da operação de colheita e as regulagens da colhedora foram dependentes da velocidade de deslocamento. A distribuição de palha esteve próxima do desejável para o sistema de semeadura direta. A utilização das cartas de controle foi eficiente na identificação dos pontos fora de controle e na avaliação da qualidade do processo de colheita.Palavras-chave: cartas de controle, colhedora, velocidade de colheita. Losses of grains and distribution of straw in soybean mechanized harvesting AbstractConsidering that the harvest is the final step of a productive process and the losses should be kept within acceptable standards, the settings of harvesters should reduce quantitative losses and warrant high quality and sustainability of the productive system. This study aimed to determine the quantitative losses, straw distribution and operational characteristics of the harvester through the statistical process control, and to verify the quality of the harvesting operation. The study was conducted in Santa Juliana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (19 o 18' S and 47 o 31' W). The area sampled consisted in 40 points distributed in rectangular grid, equidistant from 50 m, defined sequentially after harvest starting. At each point, we evaluated the water content of the grains, number of pods per plant; insertion height of first pod; plant of height; productivity; straw distribution and operational characteristics of the harvester. The grain loss caused by the harvester was outside the control limits, but within the acceptable standards of losses for soybean crop. The quality of the harvesting operation and adjustments of the harvester were dependent on the speed displacement. The straw distribution proved to be near of the desirable for no-tillage system. The use of control charts was effi...
ResumoO sistema de colheita mecanizada pode buscar melhorias no processo utilizando ferramentas de qualidade e auxiliar na redução de perdas, aos danos à soqueira e aumentar a longevidade do canavial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar o controle efetivo da variabilidade das perdas e danos à soqueira, bem como identificar se estas estão dentro dos padrões aceitáveis. Para tanto, foram amostrados 40 pontos em dois períodos de colheita, diurna e noturna, em malhas retangulares (55 x 45 m) para determinação das perdas visíveis (rebolos repicados e estilhaçados, pedaço fixo e solto, toco e estilhaço), utilizando-se armações de 10 m 2 . Foram mensurados a altura de corte e os danos na soqueira (sem danos, danos parciais e fragmentados). A estatística utilizada foi descritiva para as variáveis perdas de cana-de-açúcar no período diurno (D) e noturno (N), além da análise de variância, utilizando-se o teste F a 5% de probabilidade e o teste de Tukey para comparação de médias e a utilização de controle estatístico de processo por meio de cartas de controle de processo. Não houve diferença quanto a danos na soqueira. No processo de colheita, as perdas por rebolo repicado e estilhaçado foram consideradas estáveis (sob controle), assim como as perdas por toco, enquanto as perdas por pedaço fixo e solto, estilhaço e cana-inteira ficaram fora de controle. A altura de corte e as perdas totais foram maiores durante a colheita noturna. As cartas foram eficientes para a avaliação de controle do processo de colheita diurno e noturno.Palavras-chave: perdas visíveis, colhedora, controle de qualidade.Statistical control applied in the process of mechanical sugar cane harvest in the diurnal and nocturnal periods AbstractThe system of mechanized harvesting can seek process improvements using quality tools that can assist in reducing losses, damaged ratoons and increase the longevity of sugarcane crop. Therefore, the objective this study was to detect the effective control of the variability of losses and damage to ratoon and identify whether they are within acceptable standards. Thus, 40 points were sampled in two periods of harvest, diurnal and nocturnal, in rectangular grids (55 x 45 m) for determining visible losses (whole and shattered billets, fixed and loose piece, stump and shrapnel), using frames of 10 m 2 . Also, we measured the height of cut and degree of damage to ratoon (without damage, partial injury and fragmentation). The statistic used was descriptive variables for the loss of sugarcane during the diurnal (D) and nocturnal (N) periods, analysis of variance using the F test at 5% probability and the Tukey test for comparison of the mean, also using the statistical control through charts process. There was no difference to ratoon damage. In the process of harvest, losses of whole and shattered billets by grinding were considered under control, so as losses from the stump. On the other hand, the losses of fixed piece, shrapnel and whole-cane were not controlled. The cutting height and total losses were higher during th...
Mechanized coffee harvesting is one of the main technological advances that benefit producers, but problems with planning for planting and crop development and faults in
RESUMO -A colheita é momento crítico na produção do amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.), porém, nesta operação as perdas são inevitáveis, podendo chegar, em alguns casos, a valores de até 30% da produtividade. O amendoim é cultivado em um curto período de tempo durante a reforma dos canaviais, o que proporciona melhor uso dos espaços agrícolas na região de Jaboticabal, SP. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa definir a antecipação do arranquio do amendoim a partir da determinação da maturação. Realizou-se o arranquio do amendoim aos 120; 125; 130; 135 e 140 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F e quando houve significância das médias, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, mediante uso do diagrama de caixas para as variáveis: maturação, teor de água das vagens e do solo, resistência mecânica do solo à penetração, perdas na colheita e produtividade. O diagrama de caixas mostrou-se eficiente para a avaliação univariada das variáveis analisadas do amendoim, criando excelentes condições de visualização do comportamento das mesmas. Recomenda-se iniciar o arranquio do amendoim aos 120 DAS. Palavras-chave:Amendoim. Plantas-maturação. Época de colheita. ABSTRACT -The harvest is a critical time in the production of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), however in this operation losses are inevitable, in some cases of up to 30% of production. Peanuts are grown for a short period during the reform of the sugarcane fields, providing better usage of the agricultural spaces in Jaboticabal, São Paulo. The objective of this research was to see how early the peanuts could be dug up once they are seen to have matured. The peanuts were dug up at 120, 125, 130, 135 and 140 days after sowing. Results were subjected to variance analysis by the F-test, and when there was significance of the averages, the Tukey test at 5% probability was applied, using a box plot for the following variables: maturation, moisture content of pods and soil, mechanical resistance of soil to penetration, harvest loss and productivity. The box plot proved efficient in the univariate evaluation of the analyzed variables, creating excellent conditions for viewing their behavior. Digging up the peanuts at 120 DAS is recommended.
Among the factors that may influence corn yield are sowing operation direction and plant population, since they alter the shade index between crop rows, and consequently the efficiency of interception of the photosynthetically active radiation by the leaves of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sowing direction and plant populations on P2830VYH hybrid corn yield. The experiment was conducted at the facilities of FCAV-UNESP, latitude 21º 14' S and longitude 48º 16' W in Jaboticabal (SP). The treatments were composed of three sowing directions (North-South, Northeast-Southwest, and East-West) and three population densities (40,000, 60,000 and 80,000 plants ha -1 ). The treatment with 80,000 plants ha -1 had the lowest cost per sack of corn and profitability 21% higher than that of the treatment with 60,000 plants ha -1 , and 45% higher than that of the treatment with 40,000 plants ha -1 . Sowing direction had no influence on grain yield when environmental conditions were favorable to the development of the crop. Lower plant densities lead to higher individual results in relation to the number of cobs, length of cobs and number of grains per row.
SUMMarYthe technologies setting at agricultural production system have the main characteristics the vertical productivity, reduced costs, soil physical, chemical and biological improvement to promote production sustainable growth. thus, the study aimed to determine the variability and the linear and special correlations between the plant and soil attributes in order to select and indicate good representation of soil physical quality for forage productivity. in the growing season of 2006, on the Fazenda Bonança in pereira Barreto (Sp), the productivity of autumn corn forage (FdM) in an irrigated no-tillage system and the soil physical properties were analyzed. the purpose was to study the variability and the linear and spatial correlations between the plant and soil properties, to select an indicator of soil physical quality related to corn forage yield. a geostatistical grid was installed to collect soil and plant data, with 125 sampling points in an area of 2,500 m 2 . the results show that the studied properties did not vary randomly and that data variability was low to very high, with well-defined spatial patterns, ranging from 7.8 to 38.0 m. on the other hand, the linear correlation between the plant and the soil properties was low and highly significant. the pairs forage dry matter versus microporosity and stem diameter versus bulk density were best correlated in the 0-0.10 m layer, while the other pairs -forage dry matter versus macro -and total porosity -were inversely correlated in the same layer. However, from the spatial point of view, there was a high inverse correlation between forage dry matter with microporosity, so that microporosity in the 0-0.10 m layer can be considered a good indicator of soil physical quality, with a view to corn forage yield. index terms: soil physical properties, soil management, geostatistics, no-tillage, forage crops.
The intensifying use of machines in agriculture to increase operational capacity requires investments in more powerful and automated machines capable of working at higher speeds to meet the demands of agricultural activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sowing quality of a second crop maize using a pneumatic sowing machine equipped with two seed-metering devices at different displacement speeds. The statistical design was a randomized block design arranged in 6 × 2 factorial, with 4 replications, totaling 48 experimental plots. Where it was tested two seed-metering mechanisms from different manufacturers denominated A and B, and 6 displacement speeds of approximately 2.0; 4.7; 6.5; 9.1; 10.3 and 12.3 km h -1. The seed-metering mechanisms were compared by mean test while displacement speeds were compared by regression plots. The initial and final plant populations, seed depth, seedling longitudinal distribution (normal, faulty and double spacing) and grain yield were also evaluated. Displacement speed and seed-metering devices showed significant interaction only for the percentages of normal, faulty, and double spacings. The initial and final population presented an isolated effect for both the seed-metering devices and velocities. The seed depth showed an isolated velocity effect. The grain yield showed a significant isolated effect from the analyzed seed-metering devices. The seed-metering device B operating at lower speeds had better performance in the sowing process.
The mechanized harvesting process of sugarcane seedlings affects the mechanized planting operation in the sense that straw adhered to the billet can reduce the quantity of non-viable gems obtained as a result of mechanical damage sustained during the mechanized operation. This study proposes a method to improve the quality of the implantation of sugarcane crop by prevention of damages caused mainly during October/November, when adverse climatic conditions of higher water stresses and high temperatures exist. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of the sugarcane planting operation using seedlings with and without straw, distributed by planters and distributors of chopped sugarcane, and comparing their performance to that of semimechanized planting. The study was conducted at Fazenda Santa Clara, located in Pradópolis-São Paulo, Brazil and considered five processes: mechanized planting of seedlings without straw, mechanized planting of seedlings with straw, mechanized distribution of seedlings without straw, mechanized distribution of seedlings with straw, and semi-mechanized planting. Fifty sample points were used to collect data for each process, as per the principles of Statistical Process Control. The number of unfeasible gems and faults in the stand reduced with the presence of straw in the grinding wheel, in addition to less variability being presented. The presence of straw in the billet enabled the best overall quality of sugarcane plantation.
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