Therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) has dramatically changed in the past decade with introduction of new drugs, but it is not clear if the improvements have been sustained. We studied 1038 patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2010, grouping patients into two five-year periods by diagnosis, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010. The median estimated follow up for the cohort was 5.9 years with 47% alive at last follow up. The median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 5.2 years; 4.6 years for patients in the 2001–2005 group compared with 6.1 years for the 2006–2010 cohort (P=0.002). The improvement was primarily seen among patients over 65 years; the 6-year OS improving from 31% to 56%; P<0.001. Only 10% of patients died during the first year in the latter group, compared with 17% in the earlier cohort (P<0.01), suggesting improvement in early mortality. The improved outcomes were linked closely to use of one or more new agents in initial therapy. The current results confirm continued survival improvement in MM and highlight the impact of initial therapy with novel agents. Most importantly, we demonstrate that the improved survival is benefitting older patients and that early mortality in this disease has reduced considerably.
In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group reclassified patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and bone marrow-plasma cell percentage (BMPC%) ≥ 60%, or serum free light chain ratio (FLCr) ≥ 100 or >1 focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging as multiple myeloma (MM). Predictors of progression in patients currently classified as SMM are not known. We identified 421 patients with SMM, diagnosed between 2003 and 2015. The median time to progression (TTP) was 57 months (CI, 45–72). BMPC% > 20% [hazard ratio (HR): 2.28 (CI, 1.63–3.20); p < 0.0001]; M-protein > 2g/dL [HR: 1.56 (CI, 1.11–2.20); p = 0.01], and FLCr > 20 [HR: 2.13 (CI, 1.55–2.93); p < 0.0001] independently predicted shorter TTP in multivariate analysis. Age and immunoparesis were not significant. We stratified patients into three groups: low risk (none of the three risk factors; n = 143); intermediate risk (one of the three risk factors; n = 121); and high risk (≥2 of the three risk factors; n = 153). The median TTP for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 110, 68, and 29 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). BMPC% > 20%, M-protein > 2 g/dL, and FLCr > 20 at diagnosis can be used to risk stratify patients with SMM. Patients with high-risk SMM need close follow-up and are candidates for clinical trials aiming to prevent progression.
Background: Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) is a standard therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Carfilzomib, a next-generation proteasome inhibitor, in combination with lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) has shown excellent efficacy in phase II trials and may improve outcomes compared with VRd.
Systemic capillary leak syndrome, a rare disease that occurs in those of middle age, is usually diagnosed after a considerable delay from onset of symptoms. The degree of albumin decrement during an attack correlates with development of rhabdomyolysis. A reduction in the frequency and/or the severity of attacks was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients who were offered empirical therapies. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma appears to be comparable to that of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
A B S T R A C T PurposeThere is consensus that patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis with hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions attributable to clonal expansion of plasma cells (CRAB criteria) also have multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of immunoglobulin AL amyloidosis with and without MM, with a goal of defining the optimal bone marrow plasma cell (BMPC) number to qualify as AL amyloidosis with MM.
Patients and MethodsWe identified 1,255 patients with AL amyloidosis seen within 90 days of diagnosis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. We defined a population of patients with coexisting MM on the basis of the existence of CRAB criteria (AL-CRAB). Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the optimal BMPC cut point to predict for 1-year mortality in patients with AL amyloidosis without CRAB to produce two additional groups: AL only (Յ 10% BMPCs) and AL plasma cell MM (AL-PCMM; Ͼ 10% BMPCs).
ResultsAmong the 1,255 patients, 100 (8%) had AL-CRAB, 476 (38%) had AL-PCMM, and 679 (54%) had AL only. Their respective median overall survival rates were 10.6, 16.2, and 46 months (P Ͻ .001). Because the outcomes of AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM were similar, they were pooled for univariate and multivariate analyses. On multivariate analysis, pooled AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM retained negative prognostic value independent of age, Mayo Clinic AL amyloidosis stage, prior autologous stem-cell transplantation, and difference between the involved and uninvolved free light chain.
ConclusionPatients with AL amyloidosis who have more than 10% BMPCs have a poor prognosis, similar to that of patients with AL-CRAB, and should therefore be considered together as AL amyloidosis with MM.
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