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We discovered a highly virulent variant of subtype-B HIV-1 in the Netherlands. One hundred nine individuals with this variant had a 0.54 to 0.74 log 10 increase (i.e., a ~3.5-fold to 5.5-fold increase) in viral load compared with, and exhibited CD4 cell decline twice as fast as, 6604 individuals with other subtype-B strains. Without treatment, advanced HIV—CD4 cell counts below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, with long-term clinical consequences—is expected to be reached, on average, 9 months after diagnosis for individuals in their thirties with this variant. Age, sex, suspected mode of transmission, and place of birth for the aforementioned 109 individuals were typical for HIV-positive people in the Netherlands, which suggests that the increased virulence is attributable to the viral strain. Genetic sequence analysis suggests that this variant arose in the 1990s from de novo mutation, not recombination, with increased transmissibility and an unfamiliar molecular mechanism of virulence.
Objective: To investigate the level of agreement of the behavioural mapping method with an accelerometer to measure physical activity of hospitalized patients. Design: A prospective single-centre observational study. Setting: A university medical centre in the Netherlands. Subjects: Patients admitted to the hospital. Main measures: Physical activity of participants was measured for one day from 9 AM to 4 PM with the behavioural mapping method and an accelerometer simultaneously. The level of agreement between the percentages spent lying, sitting and moving from both measures was evaluated using the Bland–Altman method and by calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients. Results: In total, 30 patients were included. Mean (±SD) age was 63.0 (16.8) years and the majority of patients were men ( n = 18). The mean percentage of time (SD) spent lying was 47.2 (23.3) and 49.7 (29.8); sitting 42.6 (20.5) and 40.0 (26.2); and active 10.2 (6.1) and 10.3 (8.3) according to the accelerometer and observations, respectively. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and mean difference (SD) between the two measures were 0.852 and –2.56 (19.33) for lying; 0.836 and 2.60 (17.72) for sitting; and 0.782 and −0.065 (6.23) for moving. The mean difference between the two measures is small (⩽2.6%) for all three physical activity levels. On patient level, the variation between both measures is large with differences above and below the mean of ⩾20% being common. Conclusion: The overall level of agreement between the behavioural mapping method and an accelerometer to identify the physical activity levels ‘lying’, ‘sitting’ and ‘moving’ of hospitalized patients is reasonable.
Objective Hospital in Motion is a multidimensional implementation project aiming to improve movement behavior during hospitalization. The purposed of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Hospital in Motion on movement behavior. Methods This prospective study used a pre-implementation and post-implementation design. Hospital in Motion was conducted at 4 wards of an academic hospital in the Netherlands. In each ward, multidisciplinary teams followed a 10-month step-by-step approach, including the development and implementation of a ward-specific action plan with multiple interventions to improve movement behavior. Inpatient movement behavior was assessed before the start of the project and 1 year later, using a behavioral mapping method in which patients were observed between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent lying down. In addition, sitting and moving, immobility-related complications, length of stay, discharge destination home, discharge destination rehabilitation setting, mortality, and 30-day readmissions were investigated. Differences between pre-implementation and post-implementation conditions were analyzed using the chi-square test for dichotomized variables, the Mann Whitney test for nonnormal distributed data, or independent samples t test for normally distributed data. Results Patient observations demonstrated that the primary outcome, the time spent lying down, changed from 60.1% to 52.2%. For secondary outcomes, the time spent sitting increased from 31.6% to 38.3%, and discharges to a rehabilitation setting reduced from 6 (4.4%) to 1 (0.7%). No statistical differences were found in the other secondary outcome measures. Conclusion The implementation of the multidimensional project Hospital in Motion was associated with patients who were hospitalized spending less time lying in bed and with a reduced number of discharges to a rehabilitation setting. Impact Inpatient movement behavior can be influenced by multidimensional interventions. Programs implementing interventions that specifically focus on improving time spent moving, in addition to decreasing time spent lying, are recommended.
Objective The aim of this study was to explore perceived factors of influence on the implementation of Hospital in Motion (HiM), a multidimensional and multidisciplinary implementation project to improve inpatients’ movement behavior. Methods This qualitative study was conducted on four wards. Per ward, a tailored action plan was implemented consisting of multiple tools and interventions to stimulate the integration of inpatient physical activity in usual care processes. After implementation, semi-structured interviews were performed with healthcare professionals and patients to explore perceived factors of influence on the implementation of the HiM project. A content analysis was performed using the framework of the Medical Research Council for complex interventions as guidance for the identification of categories and themes. Results In total 16 interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals and 12 with patients. The results were categorized into the three key components of the Medical Research Council framework: implementation, mechanisms of impact and context. An important factor of influence within the theme “implementation” was the iterative and multidisciplinary approach. Within the theme “mechanisms of impact” continuous attention and the interaction of multiple interventions, tailored to the target group and targeting multiple dimensions (individual, inter-professional, community and society), were perceived as important. Within the theme “context” the intrinsic motivation and inter-professional, community and societal culture towards physical activity was perceived to be of influence. Conclusion Impact can be achieved and maintained by creating continuous attention to inpatient physical activity and by the interaction between different interventions and dimensions during implementation. To maintain enough focus, the amount of activities at one time should be limited. Impact To improve inpatients’ movement behavior, implementation project teams should be multidisciplinary and they should implement a small set of tailored interventions which target multiple dimensions. Intermediate evaluation of the implementation process, strategies and interventions is recommended.
Background Despite the evidence of the adverse consequences of immobility during hospitalization, patients spend most of the time in bed. Although physical activity is a modifiable factor that can prevent in-hospital functional decline, bed rest is deeply rooted in the hospital culture. To attack this, a multidimensional approach is needed. Therefore, Hospital in Motion, a multidimensional implementation project, was designed to improve physical behavior during hospitalization. Objective The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Hospital in Motion on inpatient physical behavior. Secondary objectives are to investigate the effectiveness on length of hospital stay and immobility-related complications of patients during hospitalization and to monitor the implementation process. Methods For this study, Hospital in Motion will be implemented within 4 wards (cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery, medical oncology, and hematology) in a Dutch University Medical Center. Per ward, multidisciplinary teams will be composed who follow a step-by-step multidimensional implementation approach including the development and implementation of tailored action plans with multiple interventions to stimulate physical activity in daily care. A prepost observational study design will be used to evaluate the difference in physical behavior before and 1 year after the start of the project, including 40 patients per time point per ward (160 patients in total). The primary outcome measure is the percentage of time spent lying, measured with the behavioral mapping method. In addition, a process evaluation will be performed per ward using caregivers’ and patient surveys and semistructured interviews with patients and caregivers. Results This study is ongoing. The first participant was enrolled in October 2017 for the premeasurement. The postmeasurements are planned for the end of 2018. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication in autumn 2019. Conclusions This study will provide information about the effectiveness of the Hospital in Motion project on physical behavior and about the procedures of the followed implementation process aimed to incorporate physical activity in usual care. These insights will be useful for others interested in changing physical behavior during hospitalization. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR7109; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6914 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/76dyhdjdd) International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/11341
Background Promoting physical activity (PA) in patients during and/or after an inpatient stay appears important but challenging. Interventions using activity trackers seem promising to increase PA and enhance recovery of physical functioning. Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity interventions using activity trackers on improving PA and physical functioning, compared to usual care in patients during and/or after inpatient care. In addition, it was determined whether the following intervention characteristics increase the effectiveness of these interventions: the number of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used, the use of a theoretical model or the addition of coaching by a health professional. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, SportDiscus and Web of Science databases were searched in March 2020 and updated in March 2021. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including interventions using activity trackers and feedback on PA in adult patients during, or less than 3 months after, hospitalization or inpatient rehabilitation. Methods Following database search and title and abstract screening, articles were screened on full text for eligibility and then assessed for risk of bias by using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Meta-analyses, including subgroup analysis on intervention characteristics, were conducted for the outcomes PA and physical functioning. Results Overall, 21 RCTs totalling 2355 patients were included. The trials covered a variety of clinical areas. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies. For the 13 studies that measured PA as an outcome variable(N = 1435), a significant small positive effect in favour of the intervention was found (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; 95%CI 0.12–0.56). For the 13 studies that measured physical functioning as an outcome variable (N = 1415) no significant effect was found (SMD = 0.09; 95%CI -0.02 - 0.19). Effectiveness on PA seems to improve by providing the intervention both during and after the inpatient period and by using a theoretical model, multiple BCTs and coaching by a health professional. Conclusion Interventions using activity trackers during and/or after inpatient care can be effective in increasing the level of PA. However, these improvements did not necessarily translate into improvements in physical functioning. Several intervention characteristics were found to increase the effectiveness of PA interventions. Trial registration Registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020175977) on March 23th, 2020.
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