ultivated peanut or groundnut (A. hypogaea L.) is among the most important oil and food legumes, grown on 25 million ha between latitudes 40° N and 40° S with annual production of ~46 million tons (http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home). It presumably was domesticated in South America ~6,000 years ago and then was widely distributed in post-Columbian times 1. Combining richness in seed oil (~46-58%) and protein (~22-32%), peanut is important in fighting malnutrition and ensuring food security.
Cucurbitaceae plants are of considerable biological and economic importance, and genomes of cucumber, watermelon, and melon have been sequenced. However, a comparative genomics exploration of their genome structures and evolution has not been available. Here, we aimed at performing a hierarchical inference of genomic homology resulted from recursive paleopolyploidizations. Unexpectedly, we found that, shortly after a core-eudicot-common hexaploidy, a cucurbit-common tetraploidization (CCT) occurred, overlooked by previous reports. Moreover, we characterized gene loss (and retention) after these respective events, which were significantly unbalanced between inferred subgenomes, and between plants after their split. The inference of a dominant subgenome and a sensitive one suggested an allotetraploid nature of the CCT. Besides, we found divergent evolutionary rates among cucurbits, and after doing rate correction, we dated the CCT to be 90–102 Ma, likely common to all Cucurbitaceae plants, showing its important role in the establishment of the plant family.
Angiosperms represent one of the most spectacular terrestrial radiations on the planet1, but their early diversification and phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain2–5. A key reason for this impasse is the paucity of complete genomes representing early-diverging angiosperms. Here, we present high-quality, chromosomal-level genome assemblies of two aquatic species—prickly waterlily (Euryale ferox; Nymphaeales) and the rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum; Ceratophyllales)—and expand the genomic representation for key sectors of the angiosperm tree of life. We identify multiple independent polyploidization events in each of the five major clades (that is, Nymphaeales, magnoliids, monocots, Ceratophyllales and eudicots). Furthermore, our phylogenomic analyses, which spanned multiple datasets and diverse methods, confirm that Amborella and Nymphaeales are successively sister to all other angiosperms. Furthermore, these genomes help to elucidate relationships among the major subclades within Mesangiospermae, which contain about 350,000 species. In particular, the species-poor lineage Ceratophyllales is supported as sister to eudicots, and monocots and magnoliids are placed as successively sister to Ceratophyllales and eudicots. Finally, our analyses indicate that incomplete lineage sorting may account for the incongruent phylogenetic placement of magnoliids between nuclear and plastid genomes.
Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) in the Brassicaceae family possesses many excellent agronomic traits. Here, the high-quality genome sequence of B. carinata is reported. Characterization revealed a genome anchored to 17 chromosomes with a total length of 1.087 Gb and an N50 scaffold length of 60 Mb. Repetitive sequences account for approximately 634 Mb or 58.34% of the B. carinata genome. Notably, 51.91% of 97,149 genes are confined to the terminal 20% of chromosomes as a result of the expansion of repeats in pericentromeric regions. Brassica carinata shares one whole-genome triplication event with the five other species in U’s triangle, a classic model of evolution and polyploidy in Brassica. Brassica carinata was deduced to have formed ∼0.047 Mya, which is slightly earlier than B. napus but later than B. juncea. Our analysis indicated that the relationship between the two subgenomes (BcaB and BcaC) is greater than that between other two tetraploid subgenomes (BjuB and BnaC) and their respective diploid parents. RNA-seq datasets and comparative genomic analysis were used to identify several key genes in pathways regulating disease resistance and glucosinolate metabolism. Further analyses revealed that genome triplication and tandem duplication played important roles in the expansion of those genes in Brassica species. With the genome sequencing of B. carinata completed, the genomes of all six Brassica species in U’s triangle are now resolved. The data obtained from genome sequencing, transcriptome analysis, and comparative genomic efforts in this study provide valuable insights into the genome evolution of the six Brassica species in U’s triangle.
Summary Celery (Apium graveolens L. 2n = 2x = 22), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important and globally grown vegetables. Here, we report a high‐quality genome sequence assembly, anchored to 11 chromosomes, with total length of 3.33 Gb and N50 scaffold length of 289.78 Mb. Most (92.91%) of the genome is composed of repetitive sequences, with 62.12% of 31 326 annotated genes confined to the terminal 20% of chromosomes. Simultaneous bursts of shared long‐terminal repeats (LTRs) in different Apiaceae plants suggest inter‐specific exchanges. Two ancestral polyploidizations were inferred, one shared by Apiales taxa and the other confined to Apiaceae. We reconstructed 8 Apiales proto‐chromosomes, inferring their evolutionary trajectories from the eudicot common ancestor to extant plants. Transcriptome sequencing in three tissues (roots, leaves and petioles), and varieties with different‐coloured petioles, revealed 4 and 2 key genes in pathways regulating anthocyanin and coumarin biosynthesis, respectively. A remarkable paucity of NBS disease‐resistant genes in celery (62) and other Apiales was explained by extensive loss and limited production of these genes during the last ~10 million years, raising questions about their biotic defence mechanisms and motivating research into effects of chemicals, for example coumarins, that give off distinctive odours. Celery genome sequencing and annotation facilitates further research into important gene functions and breeding, and comparative genomic analyses in Apiales.
The durian (Durio zibethinus) genome has recently become available, and analysis of this genome reveals two paleopolyploidization events previously inferred as shared with cotton (Gossypium spp.). Here, we reanalyzed the durian genome in comparison with other well-characterized genomes. We found that durian and cotton were actually affected by different polyploidization events: hexaploidization in durian ;19-21 million years ago (mya) and decaploidization in cotton ;13-14 mya. Previous interpretations of shared polyploidization events may have resulted from the elevated evolutionary rates in cotton genes due to the decaploidization and insufficient consideration of the complexity of plant genomes. The decaploidization elevated evolutionary rates of cotton genes by ;64% compared to durian and explained a previous ;4-fold over dating of the event. In contrast, the hexaploidization in durian did not prominently elevate gene evolutionary rates, likely due to its long generation time. Moreover, divergent evolutionary rates probably explain 98.4% of reconstructed phylogenetic trees of homologous genes being incongruent with expected topology. The findings provide further insight into the roles played by polypoidization in the evolution of genomes and genes, and they suggest revisiting existing reconstructed phylogenetic trees. and led the research. J.W. implemented and coordinated the analysis.
SummaryThe genome of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) was sequenced previously, the first in the Actinidiaceae family. It was shown to have been affected by polyploidization events, the nature of which has been elusive. Here, we performed a reanalysis of the genome and found clear evidence of 2 tetraploidization events, with one occurring ∼50–57 million years ago (Mya) and the other ∼18–20 Mya. Two subgenomes produced by each event have been under balanced fractionation. Moreover, genes were revealed to express in a balanced way between duplicated copies of chromosomes. Besides, lowered evolutionary rates of kiwifruit genes were observed. These findings could be explained by the likely auto-tetraploidization nature of the polyploidization events. Besides, we found that polyploidy contributed to the expansion of key functional genes, e.g., vitamin C biosynthesis genes. The present work also provided an important comparative genomics resource in the Actinidiaceae and related families.
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