The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.Oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and harbour most of the phylum diversity of the animal kingdom. Understanding marine biodiversity and its evolution remains a major challenge. The Pacific oyster C. gigas (Thunberg, 1793) is a marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca, which contains the largest number of described marine animal species 1 . Molluscs have vital roles in the functioning of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and have had major effects on humans, primarily as food sources but also as sources of dyes, decorative pearls and shells, vectors of parasites, and biofouling or destructive agents. Many molluscs are important fishery and aquaculture species, as well as models for studying neurobiology, biomineralization, ocean acidification and adaptation to coastal environments under climate change 2,3 . As the most speciose member of the Lophotrochozoa, phylum Mollusca is central to our understanding of the biology and evolution of this superphylum of protostomes.As sessile marine animals living in estuarine and intertidal regions, oysters must cope with harsh and dynamically changing environments. Abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity fluctuate wildly, and toxic metals and desiccation also pose serious challenges. Filter-feeding oysters face tremendous exposure to microbial pathogens. Oysters do have a notable physical line of defence against predation and desiccation in the formation of thick calcified shells, a key evolutionary innovation making molluscs a successful group. However, acidification of the world's oceans by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide poses a potentially serious threat to this ancient adaptation 4 . Understanding biomineralization and molluscan shell formation is, thus, a major area of interest 5 . Crassostrea gigas is also an interesting model for developmental biology owing to its mosaic development with typical molluscan stages, including trochophore and veliger larvae and metamorphosis.A complete genome sequence of C. gigas would enable a more th...
The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapaThe Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 1 Abstract:The Brassicaceae family which includes Arabidopsis thaliana, is a natural priority for reaching beyond botanical models to more deeply sample angiosperm genomic and functional diversity. Here we report the draft genome sequence and its annoation of Brassica rapa, one of the two ancestral species of oilseed rape. We modeled 41,174 protein-coding genes in the B. rapa genome. B. rapa has experienced only the second genome triplication reported to date, with its close relationship to A. thaliana providing a useful outgroup for investigating many consequences of triplication for its structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one copy containing a greater proportion of genes expected to have been present in its ancestor (70%) than the remaining two (46% and 36%). Both a generally rapid evolutionary rate, and specific copy number amplifications of particular gene families, may contribute to the remarkable propensity of Brassica species for the development of new morphological variants. The B. rapa genome provides a new resource for comparative and evolutionary analysis of the Brassicaceae genomes and also a platform for genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.2
Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.
ultivated peanut or groundnut (A. hypogaea L.) is among the most important oil and food legumes, grown on 25 million ha between latitudes 40° N and 40° S with annual production of ~46 million tons (http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home). It presumably was domesticated in South America ~6,000 years ago and then was widely distributed in post-Columbian times 1. Combining richness in seed oil (~46-58%) and protein (~22-32%), peanut is important in fighting malnutrition and ensuring food security.
Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.
Background B-box (BBX) proteins are important factors involving in the regulation of plant growth and development, and have been identified in many plant species. However, the characteristics and transcription patterns of BBX genes in wild peanut are limited. Results In the present study, we identified and characterized 24 BBX genes in a wild peanut Arachis duranensis. The AdBBX members distributed on 9 of the 10 chromosomes and chromosome 3 contained the most AdBBX members, with 6 AdBBXs. 16 AdBBX proteins had two distinct BBX domains, 11 members contained one CCT domain, and 7 genes had both BBX and CCT domains. Protein structure analysis revealed that AdBBX were classified into five clades: I (3 genes), II (4 genes), III (4 genes), IV (9 genes) and V (4 genes), on the basis of the diversity of conserved BBX and CCT domains. Moreover, 15 distinct motifs were found in these 24 AdBBX proteins and motif 1 and 5 existed in all the AdBBX proteins. Duplication analysis revealed that 4 interchromosomal duplicated gene pairs were obtained and all of them belonged to group IV. In addition, 95 kinds of cis-acting elements were found in the promoter regions of AdBBXs and 53 types were predicted to have putative functions. The numbers and types of cis-acting elements varied in these AdBBX promoters, as a result, AdBBX genes exhibited distinct expression levels in different tissues. The transcription investigation combined with synteny analysis suggested AdBBX8 might be the key factor involving in flowering time regulation in Arachis duranensis. Conclusion Overall, this study provides a genome-wide identification of BBX genes in a wild peanut Arachis duranensis. Characteristic and transcription pattern analysis revealed their critical roles in plant growth and development. Our study will provide essential information for further functional characteristic investigation of AdBBX genes.
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