The Andean common bean AND 277 has the Co-14 and the Phg-1 alleles that confer resistance to 21 and eight races, respectively, of the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. Because of its broad resistance spectrum, Co-14 is one of the main genes used in ANT resistance breeding. Additionally, Phg-1 is used for resistance to ALS. In this study, we elucidate the inheritance of the resistance of AND 277 to both pathogens using F2 populations from the AND 277 × Rudá and AND 277 × Ouro Negro crosses and F2:3 families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Rudá and Ouro Negro are susceptible to all of the above races of both pathogens. Co-segregation analysis revealed that a single dominant gene in AND 277 confers resistance to races 65, 73, and 2047 of the ANT and to race 63-23 of the ALS pathogens. Co-14 and Phg-1 are tightly linked (0.0 cM) on linkage group Pv01. Through synteny mapping between common bean and soybean we also identified two new molecular markers, CV542014450 and TGA1.1570, tagging the Co-14 and Phg-1 loci. These markers are linked at 0.7 and 1.3 cM, respectively, from the Co-14/Phg-1 locus in coupling phase. The analysis of allele segregation in the BAT 93/Jalo EEP558 and California Dark Red Kidney/Yolano recombinant populations revealed that CV542014450 and TGA1.1570 segregated in the expected 1:1 ratio. Due to the physical linkage in cis configuration, Co-14 and Phg-1 are inherited together and can be monitored indirectly with the CV542014450 and TGA1.1570 markers. These results illustrate the rapid discovery of new markers through synteny mapping. These markers will reduce the time and costs associated with the pyramiding of these two disease resistance genes.
Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ouro Negro is a highly productive common bean cultivar, which contains the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes for resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study, we performed a genetic co-segregation analysis of resistance to ANT and ALS using an F2 population from the Rudá × Ouro Negro cross and the F2:3 families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Ouro Negro is resistant to races 7 and 73 of the ANT and race 63-39 of the ALS pathogens. Conversely, cultivars AND 277 and Rudá are susceptible to races 7 and 73 of ANT, respectively. Both cultivars are susceptible to race 63-39 of ALS. Co-segregation analysis revealed that Co-10 and Phg-ON were inherited together, conferring resistance to races 7 and 73 of ANT and race 63-39 of ALS. The Co-10 and Phg-ON genes co-segregated and were tightly linked at a distance of 0.0 cM on chromosome Pv04. The molecular marker g2303 was linked to Co-10 and Phg-ON at a distance of 0.0 cM. Because of their physical linkage in a cis configuration, the Co-10 and Phg-ON resistance alleles are inherited together and can be monitored with great efficiency using g2303. The close linkage between the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes and prior evidence are consistent with the existence of a resistance gene cluster at one end of chromosome Pv04, which also contains the Co-3 locus and ANT resistance quantitative trait loci. These results will be very useful for breeding programs aimed at developing bean cultivars with ANT and ALS resistance using marker-assisted selection.
RESUMOAs cultivares de mandioca IAC 12, IAC 13, IAC 14, Fécula Branca, Espeto, Branca-de-Santa Catarina, Fibra, Verdinha e Mico foram avaliadas quanto à produção de raízes, parte aérea, teores de matéria seca e resistência à bacteriose, nos anos agrícolas 1994/95, 1995/96 e 1996/97, na localidade de Araruna, noroeste do Paraná. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Na análise conjunta verificou-se efeito significativo (P < 0,05) da interação cultivares vs. anos para todas as características avaliadas. Apesar da interação foi possível concluir, de modo geral, que as maiores produções de parte aérea foram obtidas na cultivar IAC 14. Em relação à produção de raízes tuberosas as cultivares Fécula Branca, Mico, Fibra, Espeto, IAC 14 e Verdinha mostraram-se mais produtivas na média dos três anos. As cultivares IAC 14, Fécula Branca, IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram os maiores teores de matéria seca nas raízes tuberosas. Quanto à bacteriose as cultivares Mico, IAC 14 e Fécula Branca mostraram-se mais resistentes. Palavas-chave: Manihot esculenta, cultivares, produtividade, matéria seca, resistência bacteriana. ABSTRACT EVALUATION OF CASSAVA CULTIVARS IN NORTHWEST REGION OF PARANÁ STATE, BRAZILNine cassava cultivars IAC 12, IAC 13, IAC 14, Fécula Branca, Espeto, Branca-de-Santa Catarina, Fibra, Verdinha and Mico were evaluated for roots and branches productivity, dry matter contents and bacterium resistance. The trials were carried out during the years of 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97, in Araruna, Northwest Region of Paraná State, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. In the joint analyses, the cultivar vs. year interaction effect was significant (P < 0,05) for all the characteristics evaluated. In spite of that, it was possible to conclude that IAC 14 and Fécula Branca had the highest branch yield and root yield, respectively. The cultivars IAC 14, Fécula Branca, IAC 13 and IAC 12 presented the highest root dry matter contents. Mico, IAC 14 and Fécula Branca showed the highest bacterium resistance.
Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Pseudocercospora griseola, respectively, are devastating diseases of common bean around the world. Therefore, breeders are constantly searching for new genes with broadspectrum resistance against ANT and ALS. This study aimed to characterize the genetic resistance of California Dark Red Kidney (CDRK) to C. lindemuthianum races 73, 2047, and 3481 and P. griseola race 63-39 through inheritance, allelism testing, and molecular analyses. Genetic analysis of response to ANT and ALS in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a CDRK × Yolano cross (CY) showed that the resistance of CDRK cultivar is conferred by a single dominant loci, which we named CoPv01 CDRK /PhgPv01 CDRK. Allelism tests performed with race 3481showed that the resistance gene in CDRK is independent of the Co-1 and Co-AC. We conducted co-segregation analysis in genotypes of 110 CY RILs and phenotypes of the RILs in response to different races of the ANT and ALS pathogens. The results revealed that CoPv01 CDRK and PhgPv01 CDRK are coinherited, conferring resistance to all races. Genetic mapping of the CY population placed the CoPv01 CDRK /PhgPv01 CDRK loci in a 245 Kb genomic region at the end of Pv01. By genotyping 19 RILs from the CY population using three additional markers, we fine-mapped the CoPv01 CDRK /PhgPv01 CDRK loci to a smaller genomic region of 33 Kb. This 33 Kb region harbors five predicted genes based on the common bean reference genome. These results can be applied in breeding programs to develop bean cultivars with ANT and ALS resistance using marker-assisted selection.
Novel sources of resistance are continuously needed to combat anthracnose disease in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the hypervariable pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magnus) Briosi and Cavara. We sought to characterize the novel anthracnose resistance in Andean common bean landrace ‘Jalo Listras Pretas’ (JLP). Jalo Listras Pretas is resistant to races 9, 64, 65, and 73 of the anthracnose pathogen used in this study. To examine inheritance of anthracnose resistance in JLP, F2 populations JLP/Mexico 222 and JLP/Cornell 49242 were inoculated with discriminating races of the pathogen. Segregation for resistance in both F2 populations fit a 3:1 resistant/susceptible ratio suggesting that the anthracnose resistance in JLP is controlled by a single dominant gene. To establish independence of the resistance gene in JLP from other published resistance genes, allelism tests were conducted with 14 F2 populations derived from crossing JLP with Andean cultivars carrying anthracnose resistance genes Co‐1, Co‐12, Co‐13, Co‐15, and Co‐12, and with Middle American cultivars with Co‐2, Co‐3, Co‐43, Co‐5, Co‐6, Co‐7, Co‐9, Co‐10, and Co‐11 Results revealed the resistance gene in JLP was independent of the Andean loci Co‐1 and Co‐12, and the nine Middle American anthracnose resistance genes. The symbol Co‐13 was assigned to this newly discovered anthracnose resistance gene in Brazilian Andean common bean landrace JLP.
RESUMORealizou-se este estudo no noroeste do estado do Paraná, durante os anos agrícolas de 1994/95 e 1996/97, para avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de preparo em algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico e na cultura da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). Os tratamentos utilizados constituíram-se de três sistemas de preparo de solo: plantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação + gradagem niveladora) e preparo convencional (arado de aiveca + gradagem niveladora). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com seis repetições. Na camada de 0-0,10 m, os maiores valores de macroporosidade foram obtidos com os sistemas de preparo mínimo e preparo convencional, enquanto o plantio direto apresentou os maiores valores de densidade do solo. O preparo mínimo propiciou as maiores concentrações de P disponível, de K + e de Ca 2+ , bem como menor concentração de Mg 2+ , na camada de 0-0,05 m do solo. O teor de matéria orgânica do solo não sofreu influência dos sistemas de preparo. O preparo mínimo e o convencional propiciaram maior altura de plantas e maior produção de raízes tuberosas, nos dois anos de avaliação. Comparado aos outros sistemas de preparo, o plantio direto propiciou menores produtividades de parte aérea e de raízes tuberosas.Termos de indexação: propriedades físicas do solo, fertilidade do solo, cultivo mínimo, plantio direto, porosidade do solo.
ÔJalo VermelhoÕ is a large seeded Andean landrace of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that constitutes an important source of anthracnose resistance, disease caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. This landrace has different resistance spectrum, when compared with cultivars of Andean origin, indicating the presence of an anthracnose-resistant gene different from Co-1 locus. This anthracnose resistance was characterized by inheritance and allelism tests were carried out on the following genes: Co-1, Co-1 2 , Co-1 3 , Co-1 5 , Co-2, Co-3, Co-4, Co-5, Co-6, Co-7, Co-9, Co-10, Co-11 and Co-13. Resistance to races 23, 55, 89 and 453 in ÔJalo VermelhoÕ was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Allelism tests in F 2 populations demonstrated that ÔJalo VermelhoÕ carries a dominant gene located at a distinct locus, differing from previously characterized genes. Based on its independence from previously described loci, the authors propose that the ÔJalo VermelhoÕs gene should be named Co-12. This new gene is a valuable source of resistance to anthracnose which can be transferred to commercial cultivars to enhance the effectiveness of resistance gene pyramiding in bean breeding programmes.
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