Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in double-bundle technique is advocated to more closely restore the anatomy and function of the native ligament than conventional single-bundle technique. But up to now there are only a few clinical investigations comparing both techniques in a prospective manner. We hypothesized that double-bundle ACL reconstruction reveals superior clinical and subjective results compared to single-bundle technique in a high-demand collective. A total of 50 male patients (mean age 29.4 years) were prospectively randomized consecutively into one of the two reconstruction techniques. Group 1 (SB) underwent a 4-stranded single-bundle reconstruction with a ST graft in femoral position at 10:00 and 02:00 o'clock, respectively. In group 2 (DB), reconstruction was performed by using a 2-stranded ST graft with double-bundle, four tunnel technique. Before surgery and at a 2 year follow-up (range 23-25 months) patients were evaluated by the same blinded observer. There was no significant difference in the side-to-side anterior laxity-measurement with the KT-1000 between both groups. As evaluated by the pivot shift, no significant correlation could be noted (Fisher exact test P = 0.098) between rotational stability and any of the both reconstruction techniques. However, the anterior and rotational stability improved significantly at 2-year follow-up compared to preoperatively (P = 0.003) in both groups. The statistical analysis showed a significant increase for the IKDC (subjective, objective) and the Lysholm Score at final follow-up among each single technique, while we found no significant difference between the two reconstruction methods. On the basis of our investigation, we conclude that reconstruction of the ACL by a double-bundle ST graft with an extracortical anchorage can achieve excellent clinical results. But in contrast to our initial hypothesis, we could not quote any significant advantages by creating two independent bundles. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in conventional single-bundle technique with a more horizontal femoral tunnel placement obtains comparable clinical results in the present high-demand collective.
In this retrospective case series 80 patients divided in 40 matched pair groups with an arthroscopically proven ACL insufficiency were followed up for 15 years. One half was reconstructed using an autologous BTB patella graft, the other half was treated by a conservative physiotherapeutic based rehabilitation program. At follow-up the clinical scores (Lysholm, IKDC) showed no significant differences between subjects who had undergone ACL reconstruction and those who had not. Furthermore there was no detectable difference in the incidence of osteoarthritis between the cohorts. Patients having a negative pivot shift test showed significantly less signs of radiographic osteoarthritis and better functional assessment scores whether reconstructed or not. Based on these results and a review of the literature there is no clear evidence that ACL reconstruction reduces the rate of OA development or improves the long-term symptomatic outcome. Probably review of reconstruction by an anatomical approach will be more successful than operative techniques decades ago.
ACL reconstruction in adolescents undergoing or being beyond the final growth spurt can be performed as in adults without major concern of growth disturbance. Whereas for the young athlete with wide-open physis a lot of controversy still exists about the technical aspect of the procedure to minimise the risk of growth disturbance. Between 10/1997 and 10/2002 31 children graded Tanner stage 1 or 2 (median age 11 years) with an intraligamental rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament were enrolled. Seventeen patients with coexisting intraarticular damage (meniscus, osteochondral flake) underwent transphsyeal reconstruction of the ACL with the use of an autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft, whereas 14 patients without coexisting pathologies received a nonoperative regime. Growth disturbance, functional and radiographic outcome could be evaluated in 28 patients at a median of 70 months after initial treatment. No patient had clinical or radiological evidence for varus/valgus malalignment or leg length discrepancy. The mean of subsequent body growth within the study population was 20.3 cm. Patients operated on revealed significant (P < 0.05) better clinical (KT-1000 side-to-side difference, pivot shift) and functional results according to the IKDC (median, 95 vs. 87), Lysholm (median, 93 vs. 84) and the Tegner score. More than half of the conservatively treated patients (58%) had subsequent surgery due to persistent instability. Transphyseal reconstruction of intraligamental ACL ruptures with an autologous ST graft yielded superior clinical results if compared to a nonoperative treatment in immature prepubescent patients being Tanner stage 1 and 2.
The simulator study allowed an exact characterization of the running-in period and showed a delayed onset of running-in wear. In contrast, the clinical data showed a slow increase in measured ion concentrations. These different wear patterns are probably due to the effects of distribution, accumulation, and excretion of particles and ions in vivo.
Pathology of the acetabular labrum plays an increasing role in the treatment of hip pain. Hip arthroscopy has proven its clinical value as a useful procedure for successful treatment of labral tears. Until today, only a few studies have investigated the influence of articular cartilage defects on the clinical outcome of partial arthroscopic labrum resection in a larger patient population. We prospectively evaluated patients with an intraoperatively proven labral lesion/tear without any radiological and arthroscopical sign of a concomitant bony femoroacetabular impingement or hip dysplasia for a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Cartilage defects were classified according to Outerbridge and divided into two subgroups: Outerbridge < or = 1 and Outerbridge > or = 2, respectively. To evaluate combined results, various established scoring systems (visual analogue scale, modified Harris Hip Score, Larson Hip Score) were used. Out of 54 originally enrolled patients, 50 individuals (29 female, 21 male) with a median age of 33 years (range 15-49) were available for follow-up after a mean of 34 (range 24-48) months. At follow-up, the total study population experienced significant improvement in pain and in the combined evaluation scales (Larson Hip Score/MHHS). When patients were categorized into two subgroups, either with intraoperatively present or absent articular cartilage defects, our data indicated that subjects with no degenerative changes of the articular cartilage surface significantly improved in the applied clinically scoring systems. In contrast, in patients with an articular cartilage lesion during hip arthroscopy score values had a tendency to be unimproved or even deteriorated at follow-up. Regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between postoperative outcome and the grading of the coexistent articular cartilage defect. On the basis of our investigation, we conclude that partial arthroscopic resection of a torn labrum without attending bone deformity (dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement) can reveal good and satisfied results. Depending on the extent of a coexisting articular cartilage defect subjective clinical results are compromised.
CON/ECC leads to significantly greater muscle hypertrophy compared with CON/ECC, but without the hypothesized enhancing effect on SC activation. At the same time, CON/ECC+ induces a less favorable slower muscle phenotype for strong and fast movements.
Purpose Although the short-and mid-term outcomes of ACL reconstruction with a hamstring graft are promising, clinical investigations reporting the long-term results after ten years or longer are rare. Therefore we performed a retrospective single-blinded evaluation of ACL reconstruction using a four-stranded single-bundle reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon graft with extracortical fixation. Methods/Results At follow-up patients obtained at least the same level in the clinical outcome scores (Lysholm, IKDC, Tegner) compared to previous studies with a similar followup time using a STG graft. Furthermore there was no detectable difference in the incidence of osteoarthritis. Patients having a negative pivot shift test showed significantly fewer signs of radiographic osteoarthritis and better functional assessment scores. Conclusion On the basis of our investigation, we conclude that the reconstruction of the ACL by a quadrupled semitendinosus tendon graft with extracortical anchorage can achieve excellent clinical and subjective results after a follow-up of ten years.
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