ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of a single application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on spontaneous pain and pain on chewing after placement of initial archwires.MethodsForty-two patients (26 women, 16 men) were randomly recruited for this split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Each patient received super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) initial archwires (0.012, 0.014, 0.016, and 0.018-inch [in]) in the maxilla for leveling and alignment for an interval of 4 weeks between archwires. One side of the mouth was randomly designated as experimental, while the other side served as placebo. After insertion of each archwire, the experimental side was irradiated with a diode laser for 3 seconds each on 5 points facially and palatally per tooth, from the central incisor to first molar. On the placebo side, the laser device was held the same way but without laser application. A numerical rating scale was used to assess the intensity of spontaneous and masticatory pain for the following 7 days. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare pain scores between sides.ResultsPatients in the LLLT group exhibited significantly lower mean scores for spontaneous pain after insertion of the initial two archwires (0.012-in and 0.014-in NiTi; p < 0.05), while there was no significant difference for 0.016-in and 0.018-in wires between the LLLT and placebo groups. LLLT significantly reduced chewing pain scores (p < 0.05) for all archwires.ConclusionsA single dose of LLLT considerably lessened postoperative pain accompanying the placement of super-elastic NiTi wires for initial alignment and leveling.
Objective:To evaluate the skeletal variations amongst individuals and to compare the measurements with the standardized linear and angular values of Bjork Jarabak’s analysis.Methods:This study was conducted at POS Department, King Khalid University on 100 adult Saudi patients recruited through convenience sampling. It was conducted between April to September 2017, had inclusion criteria of patients between the age group 17 to 22 years showing normal occlusion. After history and examinations, lateral cephalographs were taken, scanned and traced using Dolphin Imaging Software and Cephalometric points were recognized. Linear and angular dimensions were calculated according to Bjork-Jarabak’s method.Results:Analysis and assessment of Saudi male and female values revealed considerable variation in the anterior and posterior cranial base lengths (p<0.05), anterior and posterior face height, ramus height, and mandibular length. Male measurements in contrast to Jarabak’s values showed noteworthy variances in articular angle, anterior and posterior cranial base, ramus height, length of mandible, anterior face height and Jarabak’s ratio. Female dimensions in relation to Jarabak’s norms showed considerable variances in articular angle, anterior cranial base, posterior facial height with less significant values in Saudi females while compared with Jarabak’s norms apart from mandibular body length which is more in Saudi females.Conclusion:Skeletal variations amongst Saudi males and females were significant and comparison with standardized linear and angular values of Bjork Jarabak’s analysis was also significant.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of simulated intraoral hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical stresses on the debonding characteristics of orthodontic brackets under different adhesive regimes. Materials and methods: Groups of pre-coated (G1) and non-coated (G2) orthodontic metal brackets were bonded onto the buccal surfaces of 96 premolars using etch-and-rinse (SG1, n = 24) and self-etch (SG2, n = 24) primers. Twelve specimens (C1) from each subgroup were subjected to early debonding resistance tests, while the other twelve (C2) were used to test delayed debonding resistance after exposure to conditions simulating intraoral hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical stresses. The debonding resistance of the brackets was evaluated using a universal testing machine and the debonding patterns were micro-visualized to determine the adhesive remnant indexes of subgroups of specimens. Results: Within each group, the etch-and-rinse primer (SG1) resulted in higher debonding resistance than self-etch primers (SG2) ( p < 0.05), while there was no difference between non-stressed and stressed specimens ( p > 0.05). Within each category of test specimens, there was no difference between pre-coated (G1) and non-coated (G2) brackets ( p > 0.05). The tested specimens in all categories showed comparable adhesive remnant indexes. However, higher percentages of favorable scores (0 and 1) were obtained for all stressed specimens. Conclusions: Short-term cumulative intraoral stresses have no adverse effect on the debonding values of either pre-coated or non-coated brackets when either etch-and-rinse or self-etch primer is used for bonding. Exposure of the bonded brackets to different types of stress reflects favorable debonding patterns.
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