Road traffic injuries (RTIs) continue to increase with the proliferation of motor vehicles, especially in low-income countries where safe road infrastructure is lacking Knowing where and why RTIs occur would allow for increased safety and prevention planning. In this study, police records of 300 motor vehicle collisions which occurred between February 2013 and January 2014 in Moshi, Tanzania, were reviewed. Analysis of variables including victim age, gender, type of collision, conditions, and use of safety equipment were analyzed. Geographic information system (GIS) analysis was performed to identify areas with the most collisions. Most injuries occurred at four intersections on two main corridor. Car crashes represented 48% of reports while motorcycle collisions were 35% of reports. Victims were predominantly male. The majority (64%) of RTI victims in cars used seatbelts while only 43% of motorcyclists wore helmets; none of those who used the helmet or seatbelt suffered a grievous injury. These data demonstrate that RTIs in Moshi occur in predictable high traffic locations. RTIs injure victims of all backgrounds and safety equipment is not universally utilized. More investment is needed in improved data collection methods, and a greater emphasis on intersection safety is needed to reduce these preventable injuries.
BackgroundTraffic crashes are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Motorcycle taxi (boda boda) drivers are particularly vulnerable because they are exposed to traffic risks with limited safety equipment. This study aims to characterize injury prevalence and safety habits among boda boda drivers, as well as ways to improve road traffic safety in LMICs.MethodsA cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted with 300 boda boda drivers between 24 March and 3 April 2014 in urban Moshi, Tanzania. A convenience sample of participants was drawn from 25 of 58 registered boda boda stands and 2 of 31 unregistered stands. Data were analyzed using R, and content thematic analysis was performed and agreed upon by three investigators. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between boda boda characteristics and injury risk.ResultsIn total, 300 drivers participated, of whom 148 (49.3%) had experienced a crash during their lifetime, and 114 (77.0%) sustained at least one injury. Only 27 of those injured (23.4%) were hospitalized. Of all participants, 220 (73.3%) reported consistent helmet usage, despite 285 participants (95.0%) agreeing that helmet usage reduces injury severity. From the 280 helmets observed, 231 (82.5%) were either damaged or fit improperly. Having a cracked helmet was associated with higher risk of being involved in a traffic crash. Owning a helmet with a proper fit was associated with reduced risk for a traffic crash (OR = 0.06) and road traffic injuries (OR = 0.07). A thematic analysis of boda boda drivers’ suggestions to increase road safety identified four intervention areas: 1) roadway infrastructure and traffic regulation, 2) road user attitudes and safe driving behaviors, 3) education and training, and 4) law enforcement.ConclusionOur study demonstrates boda boda drivers’ safety behaviors and identifies four intervention areas that can be leveraged to increase overall road traffic safety. Unfortunately, while boda boda drivers are aware of ways to improve safety, adherence to safety habits remains low. Successful multi-sectoral interventions are needed to improve road safety for boda boda drivers in Tanzania.
In the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania, there are no advance care planning (ACP) protocols being used to document patient preferences for end-of-life (EoL) care. There is a general avoidance of the topic and contemplating ACP in healthcare-limited regions can be an ethically complex subject. Nonetheless, evidence from similar settings indicate that an appropriate quality of life is valued, even as one is dying. What differs amongst cultures is the definition of a 'good death'. Objective Evaluate perceptions of quality of death and advance EoL preparation in Moshi, Tanzania. Design 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Swahili using a semi-structured guide. These discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded using an inductive approach. Setting Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), referral hospital for northern Tanzania. Participants A total of 122 participants, including patients with life-threatening illnesses (34), their relatives/friends (29), healthcare professionals (29; HCPs; doctors and nurses), and allied HCPs (30; community health workers, religious leaders, and social workers) from KCMC, or nearby within Moshi, participated in this study.
Background Harmful alcohol use is a leading risk factor for injury-related death and disability in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Brief negotiational interventions (BNIs) administered in emergency departments (EDs) to injury patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are effective in reducing post-hospital alcohol intake and re-injury rates. However, most BNIs to date have been developed and implemented in high-income countries. The efficacy of BNIs in LMICs is largely unknown as few studies have undertaken the rigorous task of culturally adapting these interventions to new settings. Given the high prevalence of alcohol-related injury in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania, we culturally adapted a BNI to reduce post-injury alcohol use for implementation in this patient population. Methods We used an iterative, multiphase process to culturally adapt a high-income country standard of care BNI to the Tanzanian setting using the Intervention Mapping ADAPT framework. Our team consisted of local healthcare professionals with extensive experience in counseling patients who use alcohol, as well as an international team of academic and clinical professionals. Focus groups were used to inform culturally appropriate changes to the standard of care BNI protocol. Objective assessment of BNI delivery was performed to ensure adherence to the FRAMES model of motivational interviewing. Results We developed the Punguza Pombe Kwa Afya Yako (PPKAY); a one-time, 15-minute nurse-led BNI that encourages safe alcohol use and motivates change in alcohol use behaviors among injury patients in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Adaptations to the original intervention protocol include changes regarding the interventionist, how a patient is greeted, how the topic of alcohol use is raised, how a patient is informed of their harmful alcohol use, how graphics are visualized within the intervention protocol, how behavior change is motivated, and which behavior changes are encouraged. Conclusions The PPKAY intervention is the first BNI to be culturally adapted for delivery to injury patients in an LMIC population. Our study demonstrates a unique approach to adapting substance use interventions for use in LMICs, and shows that cultural adaptation of alcohol use interventions is feasible even in settings where community knowledge regarding harmful alcohol use is limited. Our study prompts the need for further research and cultural adaptation of BNIs for other low-income communities at increased risk of alcohol-related harm.
BackgroundRoad traffic crashes are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries. Motorcycle taxi (boda-boda) drivers are particularly vulnerable because they have limited protection and safety equipment. This study characterises injury prevalence and safety habits amongst boda-boda drivers, and identifies intervention points to improve road safety.MethodsA prospective mixed methods interview and safety assessment was administered to 300 boda-boda drivers in urban Moshi, Tanzania. Participants were chosen randomly from 25 of 58 registered boda-boda stands and 2 of 31 unregistered stands. The survey was administered using a computerised, internet based survey tool (REDCAPS) and tablet computers. Data were analysed using R, and a thematic analysis was performed and agreed upon by three investigators (MP, TN, CS).ResultsOf the 148 participants (49.3%) who had experienced a crash, 114 (77.0%) sustained at least one injury. Only 27 of those injured (23.4%) were hospitalised. 220 participants (73.3%) reported consistent helmet usage despite the fact that 285 participants (95.0%) agree that helmet usage reduces injury severity. Of the 280 helmets observed, 231 (82.5%) were either damaged or fit improperly. A thematic analysis of boda-boda drivers’ suggestions to increase road safety identified four intervention points: 1) roadway infrastructure and traffic regulation, 2) road user attitudes and safe driving behaviours, 3) education and training, and 4) law enforcement.ConclusionsThe present study demonstrates the high prevalence of road traffic injuries amongst boda-boda drivers. The study identifies four intervention points that can be leveraged to increase overall road traffic safety. Unfortunately, while boda-boda drivers are aware of ways to improve safety, adherence to safety habits remains low. Successful interventions will bridge the gap between knowledge and practice of safety habits.
Background Sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of hypertension with a low rate of awareness, treatment adherence, and control. The emergency department (ED) may represent a unique opportunity to improve hypertension screening, awareness, and linkage to care. We conducted a qualitative study among hypertensive patients presenting to the ED and their healthcare providers to determine barriers to hypertension care and control. Methods In northern Tanzania, between November and December 2017, we conducted three focus group discussions among patients with hypertension presenting to the emergency department and three in-depth interviews among emergency department physicians. In our study, hypertension was defined as a single blood pressure of ≥160/100 mm Hg or a two-time average of ≥140/90 mm Hg. Barriers to care were identified by thematic analysis applying an inductive approach within the framework method. Results We enrolled 24 total patients into three focus groups and performed three in-depth interviews with individual providers. Thematic analysis identified two major domains: 1) patient knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and 2) structural barriers to hypertension care. Four major themes emerged within the knowledge, attitudes, and practices domain, including disease chronicity, provider communication, family support, and fear-based attitudes. Within the structural domain, several themes emerged that identified barriers that impeded hypertension follow-up care and self-management, including cost, access to care, and transportation and wait time. Conclusion Patients and physicians identified multiple barriers and facilitators to hypertension care. These perspectives may be helpful to design emergency department-based interventions that target blood pressure control and linkage to outpatient care.
Alcohol use is associated with 3 million annual deaths globally. Harmful alcohol use, which is associated with a high burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), often increases the probability of traumatic injury. Treatments for harmful alcohol use in LMICs, such as Tanzania, lack trained personnel and adequate infrastructure. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using SMS boosters to augment a hospital based brief negotiational intervention (BNI) in this low resourced setting. We conducted a three stage, four arm feasibility trial of a culturally adapted BNI for injury patients with harmful and hazardous drinking admitted to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Moshi, Tanzania. Post hospital discharge, two of the four arms included patients receiving either a standard or personalized short message service (SMS) booster to enhance and or perpetuate the effect of the in-hospital BNI. Text messages were sent weekly throughout a 3-month follow-up period. SMS feasibility was assessed according to the TIDier checklist evaluating what, when, how much, tailoring processes, modifications and how well (intervention fidelity). Data was collected with SMS logs and short answer surveys to participants. A total of 41 study participants were assigned to each receive 12 SMS over a three-month period; 38 received messages correctly, 3 did not receive intended messages, and 1 received a message who was not intended to. Of the 258 attempted texts, 73% were successfully sent through the messaging system. Of the messages that failed delivery, the majority were not able to be sent due to participants traveling out of cellular service range or turning off their phones. Participants interviewed in both booster arms reported that messages were appropriate, and that they would appreciate the continuation of such reminders. At 6-month follow-up, 100% (n = 11) of participants interviewed believed that the boosters had a positive impact on their behavior, with 90% reporting a large impact. This study demonstrated feasibility and acceptability of the integration of SMS mobile health technology to supplement this type of nurse-led BNI. SMS booster is a practical tool that can potentially prolong the impact of a brief hospital based intervention to enact behavioral change in injury patients with AUD.
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