Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodness-of-fit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here.Structural equation modeling (SEM), also known as path analysis with latent variables, is now a regularly used method for representing dependency (arguably "causal") relations in multivariate data in the behavioral and social sciences. Following the seminal work of Jöreskog (1973), a number of models for linear structural relations have been developed (Bentler & Weeks, 1980;Lohmoller, 1981;McDonald, 1978), and work continues on these. Commercial statistical packages include LISREL (Jöreskog & Sör-bom, 1989, 1996, EQS (Bentler, 1985(Bentler, , 1995, CALIS (Hartmann, 1992), MPLUS (Muthén & Muthén, 1998), RAMONA (Browne, Mels, & Cowan, 1994), SEPATH (Steiger, 1995), and AMOS (Arbuckle, 1997). Available freeware includes COSAN (Fraser & McDonald, 1988) and Mx (Neale, 1997). McArdle and McDonald (1984) proved that different matrix formulations of a path model with latent variables are essentially equivalent. Programs such as those listed supply essentially the same basic information, with minor variations in the details supplied. Thus, the eight parameter LISREL model, which arose out of the work of Keesling and Wiley (see Wiley, 1973) and was subsequently developed to its current state by Jöreskog (see Jöreskog and Sör-bom, 1996), the four-matrix model of Lohmoller (1981), the three-matrix EQS model of Bentler and Weeks (1980), and the two-matrix RAM model (see McArdle & McDonald, 1984) rearrange the same set of parameters. Not surprisingly-and perhaps not regrettably-user guides and texts on this topic are not in agreement in their recommendations about the style of presentation of results (e.g., see Bollen, 1989;Loehlin, 1992;Long, 1983aLong, , 1983b. There is even less agreement in the form of the results actually reported in articles on applications.It would be immodest for any journal article to offer a code of practice for the presentation of SEM results. It could also be counterproductive. (We note that for a long time there was a uniformly accepted convention for the publication of analysis of variance, or ANOVA results: the standard ANOVA table and the table of cell means. The near-disappearance of this from journals is regrettable.) Sound guidelines for the reporting of SEM results have been offered previously
Despite theoretical postulations that individuals' conformity to masculine norms is differentially related to mental health-related outcomes depending on a variety of contexts, there has not been any systematic synthesis of the empirical research on this topic. Therefore, the authors of this study conducted meta-analyses of the relationships between conformity to masculine norms (as measured by the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-94 and other versions of this scale) and mental health-related outcomes using 78 samples and 19,453 participants. Conformity to masculine norms was modestly and unfavorably associated with mental health as well as moderately and unfavorably related to psychological help seeking. The authors also identified several moderation effects. Conformity to masculine norms was more strongly correlated with negative social functioning than with psychological indicators of negative mental health. Conformity to the specific masculine norms of self-reliance, power over women, and playboy were unfavorably, robustly, and consistently related to mental health-related outcomes, whereas conformity to the masculine norm of primacy of work was not significantly related to any mental health-related outcome. These findings highlight the need for researchers to disaggregate the generic construct of conformity to masculine norms and to focus instead on specific dimensions of masculine norms and their differential associations with other outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
A growing interest in cerebellar function and its involvement in higher cognition have prompted much research in recent years. Cerebellar presence in a wide range of cognitive functions examined within an increasing body of neuroimaging literature has been observed. We applied a meta-analytic approach, which employed the activation likelihood estimate method, to consolidate results of cerebellar involvement accumulated in different cognitive tasks of interest and systematically identified similarities among the studies. The current analysis included 88 neuroimaging studies demonstrating cerebellar activations in higher cognitive domains involving emotion, executive function, language, music, timing and working memory. While largely consistent with a prior meta-analysis by Stoodley and Schmahmann (2009), our results extended their findings to include music and timing domains to provide further insights into cerebellar involvement and elucidate its role in higher cognition. In addition, we conducted inter- and intra-domain comparisons for the cognitive domains of emotion, language and working memory. We also considered task differences within the domain of verbal working memory by conducting a comparison of the Sternberg with the n-back task, as well as an analysis of the differential components within the Sternberg task. Results showed a consistent cerebellar presence in the timing domain, providing evidence for a role in time keeping. Unique clusters identified within the domain further refine the topographic organization of the cerebellum.
The authors examined the longitudinal relationship of patient-rated perfectionism, clinician-rated depression, and observer-rated therapeutic alliance using the latent difference score (LDS) analytic framework. Outpatients involved in the Treatment for Depression Collaborative Research Program completed measures of perfectionism and depression at 5 occasions throughout treatment, with therapeutic alliance measured early in therapy. First, LDS analyses of perfectionism and depression established longitudinal change models. Further LDS analyses revealed significant longitudinal interrelationships, in which perfectionism predicted the subsequent rate of depression change, consistent with a personality vulnerability model of depression. In the final LDS model, the strength of the therapeutic alliance significantly predicted longitudinal perfectionism change, and perfectionism significantly predicted the rate of depression change throughout therapy. These results clarify the patterns of growth and change for these indicators throughout depression treatment, demonstrating an alternative method for evaluating longitudinal dynamics in therapy.
The goal of the current study is to examine the relationship amongst social support, stress, and depressive symptoms within a transactional and diathesis-stress framework using a multi-wave, longitudinal design. At the initial assessment, adolescents (n = 258) completed self-report measures assessing social support (peer, classmate, parent, and total), dependent interpersonal stress, anxious symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Additionally, participants reported stress and symptomology in each of the four waves spanning six months. Results of time-lagged, idiographic, multilevel modeling indicated that stress mediated the relationship between lower parental, classmate, and total social support and subsequent depressive, but not anxious, symptoms. In contrast, lower levels of peer support were not associated with higher levels of stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. Additionally, only classmate support deficits significantly moderated the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, the results suggest that deficits in parental and classmate support may play a greater role in contributing to adolescent depression as compared to deficits in peer support.
This meta-analysis examined the validity of various theoretical assumptions about cognitive and behavioral change following a communication recommending condom use. The synthesis comprised 82 treatment and 29 control groups included in 46 longitudinal reports with measures of perceived severity and susceptibility, attitudes and expectancies, norms, perceptions of control, intentions, knowledge, behavioral skills, or condom use. Results indicated that across the sample of studies, communications taught recipients about facts related to HIV and also induced favorable attitudes and expectancies, greater control perceptions, and stronger intentions to use condoms in the future. Moreover, messages that presented attitudinal information and modeled behavioral skills led to increased condom use. Results are discussed in the context of theories of human behavior and change and in reference to HIV-prevention interventions. KeywordsHIV and condom use; behavior; attitude; persuasion; intervention; meta-analysis Client-centered approaches and pragmatic skill-building interventions to reduce infection with HIV appear to be indispensable tools in reducing the epidemic of this disease (Kelly, 1982; Kelly & St. Lawrence, 1988, 1990. However, interventions to prevent HIV infection must also use less effortful yet persuasive approaches to reach large audiences at different Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dolores Albarracín, Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. email@example.com. HHS Public Access Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptAuthor ManuscriptAuthor Manuscript levels of risk for HIV. In persuasive communications, a standard recommendation is presented, accompanied by material designed to increase the chance that message recipients will comply with the recommendation. Given the number of communications to prevent HIV that have been delivered over the years, there should be considerable knowledge about the impact of these communications on condom use. To date, however, there has been no precise estimation of the impact of persuasive messages that recommend condom use, nor is there knowledge of the general impact of different types of persuasive arguments designed to increase condom use. For example, the health belief model (Janz & Becker, 1984;Rosenstock, 1974;Rosenstock, Strecher, & Becker, 1994) and the protection-motivation theory (Floyd, Prentice-Dunn, & Rogers, 2000;Rogers, 1975) imply that communications will increase condom use when they induce recipients' (a) fear of the severity of the disease and (b) beliefs that they are personally susceptible to it (but see the null meta-analytic findings of Gerrard, Gibbons, & Bushman, 1996). However, other conceptualizations identify different factors that are relevant to behavioral change. The theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Madden, 1986; for a meta-analysis, see Albarracín, Johnson, Fishbein, & Muellerleile, 2001) suggest that communicati...
Negative schemas have been widely recognized as being linked to psychopathology and mental health, and they are central to the Schema Therapy (ST) model. This study is the first to report on the psychometric properties of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ). In a combined community sample (Manila, Philippines, n = 559; Bangalore, India, n = 350; Singapore, n = 628), we identified a 56-item, 14-factor solution for the YPSQ. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported the 14-factor model using data from two other independent samples: an Eastern sample from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n = 229) and a Western sample from the United States (n = 214). Construct validity was demonstrated with the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3) that measures negative schemas, and divergent validity was demonstrated for 11 of the YPSQ subscales with their respective negative schema counterparts. Convergent validity of the 14 subscales of YPSQ was demonstrated with measures of personality dispositions, emotional distress, well-being, trait gratitude, and humor styles. Positive schemas also showed incremental validity over and above negative schemas for these same measures, thus demonstrating that both positive and negative schemas are separate constructs that relate in unique ways to mental health. Implications for using both the YPSQ and the YSQ-S3 scales in tandem in ST as well as cultural nuances from the use of Asian samples were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
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