Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation is a rare complication, with only five cases described in the literature. It develops when a traumatic dural tear occurs allowing cerebrospinal fluid outflow, and it often appears associated with hydrocephalus. We present a case of a 29-year-old female who suffered a motor vehicle accident causing severe brain trauma and spinal cord injury. At hospital arrival the patient scored three points in the Glasgow Coma Scale. Admission computed tomography of the head and neck demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and atlanto-occipital dislocation. Three weeks later, when impossibility to disconnect her from mechanical ventilation was noticed, a magnetic resonance imaging of the neck showed a large retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele. No radiological evidence of hydrocephalus was documented. Given the poor neurological status of the patient, with spastic quadriplegia and disability to breathe spontaneously due to bulbar-medullar injury, no invasive measure was performed to treat the pseudomeningocele. Retropharyngeal pseudomeningocele after atlanto-occipital dislocation should be managed by means of radiological brain study in order to assess for the presence of hydrocephalus, since these two pathologies often appear associated. If allowed by neurological condition of the patient, shunting procedures such as ventriculo-peritoneal or lumbo-peritoneal shunt placement may be helpful for the treatment of the pseudomeningocele, regardless of craniocervical junction management.
OBJECTIVETreatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants is a matter of debate among pediatric neurosurgeons. Neuroendoscopic lavage (NEL) has been proposed as a suitable technique for the management of this pathology. The authors present their experience with 46 patients treated with NEL after germinal matrix hemorrhage, describe their technique, and analyze the outcomes.METHODSA retrospective analysis of patients affected by grade III or IV intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) treated with NEL was performed. Nonmodifiable risk factors such as gestational age, weight at birth, modified Papile grade, and intercurrent diseases were reviewed. Safety analysis was performed, evaluating the incidence of postoperative complications. Effectivity was measured using radiological (frontal horn index and white matter injury), CSF biochemical (proteins, blood, and cellularity), and clinical variables. Permanent shunt rate and shunt survival were analyzed. The motor outcome was measured using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) at 18–24 months, and the neurocognitive outcome was evaluated according to the grade of adaptation to schooling.RESULTSForty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients were treated with a single NEL in 21 cases, 2 lavages in 13 cases, and 3 lavages in 12 cases. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.04 weeks, and the mean weight at birth was 1671.86 g. Hyaline membrane disease was described in 4.8% of the cases, hematological sepsis in 43.47%, persistent ductus arteriosus in 23.9%, and necrotizing enterocolitis in 10.9% of the cases. Modified Papile grade III and IV IVHs were observed in 60.9% and 39.1% of the cases, respectively. Postoperative infection was diagnosed in 10 of the 46 cases, CSF leak in 6, and rebleeding in 3. The mean frontal horn index decreased from 49.54 mm to 45.50 mm after NEL. No white matter injury was observed in 18 of 46 patients, focal injury was described in 13 patients, and diffuse bilateral white matter injury was observed in 15 patients. All CSF biochemical levels improved after lavage. The shunt rate was 58.7%, and shunt survival at 1 year was 50%. GMFCS grades I, II, III, IV, and V were observed in 44.74%, 21.05%, 2.63%, 15.79%, and 15.79% of patients, respectively. Good neurocognitive results were observed in 53.3% of the cases.CONCLUSIONSNeuroendoscopic lavage was a suitable alternative for the management of IVH in preterm infants in our series. Good motor and neurocognitive results were achieved by this technique, and the permanent shunt rate was reduced compared with historical controls.
Endoscopy-assisted surgery for correction of craniosynostosis in children under 4 months represents a valid and safe management option. Early treatment may contribute to prevent the development of associated ventriculomegaly and Chiari I malformation.
Introduction: Many brain processes that cause death are mediated by intracranial hypertension (ICH). The natural course of this condition inevitably leads to brain death. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic review of cerebral pathophysiology and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring.Development: Studying, monitoring, and recording ICP waves provide data about the presence of different processes that develop with ICH.Conclusions: Correct monitoring of ICP is fundamental for diagnosing ICH, and even more importantly, providing appropriate treatment in a timely manner. Fisiopatología cerebral; Líquido cefalorraquídeo; Monitorización; Presión intracraneal Conceptos básicos sobre la fisiopatología cerebral y la monitorización de la presión intracraneal Resumen Introducción: Muchos procesos encefálicos que causan la muerte de los pacientes que los presentan están mediados por hipertensión intracraneal (HIC). La historia natural de la misma conduce inexorablemente a esta muerte encefálica. El objetivo de este trabajo estriba en realizar una revisión de la fisiopatología cerebral y de la monitorización de la presión intracraneal (PIC).Desarrollo: El estudio de las ondas de PIC, su monitorización y el registro de las mismas nos informan sobre la existencia de procesos que tienen como común denominador la HIC.ଝ Please cite this article as: Rodríguez-Boto G, Rivero-Garvía M, Gutiérrez-González R, Márquez-Rivas J. Conceptos básicos sobre la fisiopatología cerebral y la monitorización de la presión intracraneal. Neurología. 2015;30:16-22. Brain pathophysiology and intracranial pressure monitoring 17 Conclusiones: El correcto registro de la PIC es fundamental para diagnosticar la HIC y, lo que resulta aún más importante, poder instaurar un tratamiento adecuado a tiempo.
Minimal handling protocols constitute an essential strategy in the reduction of external ventricular drain-related infections. Besides that, the use of antibiotic-impregnated catheters may reduce infection-related hospital costs.
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