<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants is a serious entity related to high mortality and morbidity. Neuroendoscopic lavage (NEL) is a suitable alternative for the management of this pathology. However, as with every endoscopic technique, it requires some experience and several cases to master. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We present a descriptive study of some technical nuances, tips, and tricks that have been learned in the last 8 years with over a hundred NELs performed in preterm infants. These variations are classified into 3 categories according to their temporal relationship with the surgical procedure: preoperative stage, intraoperative stage, and postoperative stage. We include a brief description of each one and the reasons why they are included in our current clinical practice. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Twenty tips and pearls were described in detail and are reported here. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variations were exposed and related to the most frequent complications of this procedure: infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and rebleeding. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> NEL is a useful technique for the management of germinal matrix hemorrhage in preterm infants. These technical nuances have improved the results of our technique and helped us to prevent complications related to the procedure.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements are imperative for the proper diagnosis and treatment of several neurological disorders. Telemetric sensors have shown their utility for ICP estimation in short-term monitoring in humans. However, their long-term reliability is uncertain. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old woman diagnosed with benign intracranial hypertension and obesity. The patient underwent gastric bypass surgery for ICP control. In order to monitor ICP before and after bariatric surgery, a Neurovent-P-tel sensor was implanted in the left frontal lobe. After gastric bypass, normal ICP values were recorded, and the patient's visual fields improved. However, the patient experienced incapacitating daily headaches. The authors decided to implant a Codman Microsensor ICP transducer in the right frontal lobe to assess the long-term reliability of the Neurovent-P-tel measurements. A comparison of the recordings at 24 and 48 hours showed good correlation and reliability during long-term monitoring with the Neurovent-P-tel, with minimal zero drift after 11 months of implantation.
BACKGROUND Intraoperative injury during endoscopic endonasal surgery of the carotid artery has been previously described in the literature. However, the accidental damage of the basilar artery in such scenario is not defined. OBJECTIVE To define the protocol of action for massive bleeding from an artery in the posterior fossa. METHODS The reported patient was diagnosed with a partially calcified clival chordoma featured by a huge intradural component. An endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid transclival approach was selected for the treatment of this tumor. During the surgical procedure, the basilar artery injury was injured, causing intense bleeding. We present and discuss the surgical maneuvers that could save a patient's life after this dramatic complication. RESULTS Different techniques were performed in order to control the massive bleeding, including injection of hemotastic matrix with thrombin (Floseal©), bipolar coagulation, and vessel reconstruction by means of a vascular clip. Finally, an autologous muscle graft reinforced with an overlying fibrin sealant patch (Tachosil©) was chosen and was an effective technique. Afterwards, the patient was treated with a flow diverter device to occlude an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm. A monoplegia of the right upper limb was the only remarkable sequel 6 mo after surgery. CONCLUSION The muscle graft together with the coordinated action with interventional neuroradiology for the reconstruction of the vessel are possibly the best options to try to preserve the neurological function. In such a scenario, the assumption of potential ischemic events prevails over the intraoperative death of the patient.
ObjectiveTo assess the effect of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the outcome of neurosurgical patients in Spain.SettingsThe initial flood of COVID-19 patients overwhelmed an unprepared healthcare system. Different measures were taken to deal with this overburden. The effect of these measures on neurosurgical patients, as well as the effect of COVID-19 itself, has not been thoroughly studied.ParticipantsThis was a multicentre, nationwide, observational retrospective study of patients who underwent any neurosurgical operation from March to July 2020.InterventionsAn exploratory factorial analysis was performed to select the most relevant variables of the sample.Primary and secondary outcome measuresUnivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of mortality and postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection.ResultsSixteen hospitals registered 1677 operated patients. The overall mortality was 6.4%, and 2.9% (44 patients) suffered a perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those infections, 24 were diagnosed postoperatively. Age (OR 1.05), perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 4.7), community COVID-19 incidence (cases/105 people/week) (OR 1.006), postoperative neurological worsening (OR 5.9), postoperative need for airway support (OR 5.38), ASA grade ≥3 (OR 2.5) and preoperative GCS 3–8 (OR 2.82) were independently associated with mortality. For SARS-CoV-2 postoperative infection, screening swab test <72 hours preoperatively (OR 0.76), community COVID-19 incidence (cases/105 people/week) (OR 1.011), preoperative cognitive impairment (OR 2.784), postoperative sepsis (OR 3.807) and an absence of postoperative complications (OR 0.188) were independently associated.ConclusionsPerioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in neurosurgical patients was associated with an increase in mortality by almost fivefold. Community COVID-19 incidence (cases/105 people/week) was a statistically independent predictor of mortality.Trial registration numberCEIM 20/217.
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