The purpose of this paper is to design and implement an automatic number plate recognition system. The system has still images as the input, and extracts a string corresponding to the plate number, which is used to obtain the output user data from a suitable database. The system extracts data from a license plate and automatically reads it with no prior assumption of background made. License plate extraction is based on plate features, such as texture, and all characters segmented from the plate are passed individually to a character recognition stage for reading. The string output is then used to query a relational database to obtain the desired user data. This particular paper utilizes the intersection of a hat filtered image and a texture mask as the means of locating the number plate within the image. The accuracy of location of the number plate with an image set of 100 images is 68%.
Due to the ISM band being unlicensed for communication applications, a lot of applications have been developed in this band and a good example is WiFi IEEE802.11a, b, g, n of Bluetooth. This numeracy of applications motivated this paper. The paper is concerned with the design of a low distortion 20dBm 2.4GHz class-J power amplifier (PA) since PAs are indispensable in radio communications. The design is based on the AVAGO ATF-52189 transistor with a transition frequency of 6GHz. The design is done as a hybrid circuit network realized using microstrip elements and surface mount device (SMD) capacitors. The schematic design, and simulation are carried out using Keysight’s Advanced Design System version 2016.01. The simulated PA exhibited a drain efficiency of 69% and a power output of21dBm.
Design of mobile robots has become an increasingly growing trend in the technology of modern times. They are very attractive engineering systems, not only because of many interesting theoretical aspects concerning kinematics, intelligent behavior and autonomy, but also because of applicability in many human activities. A typical example is the line following robot (LFR). In order for a LFR to function effectively, it must demonstrate excellent line tracking control. This is achieved by having accurate and responsive control algorithms as well as high precision color sensor systems. This paper proposes a system to show that good line tracking performance can be achieved with moderately simple digital control algorithms. The platform used is a differentially driven wheeled robot constructed using the Lego Mindstorms components. The simulation models are presented and analyzed using MATLAB Simulink. The main programming environment is the EV3 Software.
The use of energy in the world today is increasing with increase in population. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies and the stability of our environment. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to cater to the present day demands. In recent years there has been a significant global commitment to develop clean and alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind. Wind energy technology has been the fastest growing energy source because it is fairly distributed around the world and readily available for use. However, more penetration of wind energy into existing power networks has some impacts on the stability of the power system. Therefore, this paper studies and analyzes the stability of a power system with increasing wind penetration. The paper presents some analyses of a power system and the dynamic behavior which identify the issues that limit the large-scale integration of wind generators in a power system.
Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) communication systems offer significant performance advantages in view of their low probability of intercept, improved performance in multipath fading environments and their ability to avoid interference by spreading the signal over a wide bandwidth hence distributing the power. For the transmitted sequence to be correctly received and demodulated, the spreading sequence used at the receiver should be similar to that employed in the transmitter. This paper utilizes MATLAB Simulink to demonstrate a method of synchronizing the code clock at the receiver with the code clock at the transmitter. This fine alignment process is knownas code tracking.
Rain as a weather phenomenon is one of the things that greatly affects propagation of radio waves. Above 10 GHz, the attenuation brought about by the interaction of the propagating waves and the rain droplets becomes significant for both terrestrial radio links and satellite links. For this reason, rain attenuation models have been developed to aid in planning purposes for network implementation. The models use statistics to predict the attenuation that is caused by specific amount of rain and also the type of rain. This means that different regions will have different levels of attenuation due to the fact that they experience different types and amount of rain. A couple of models exist including the ITU-R, Moupfouma model, Crane attenuation model and other localized models depending on the geographical area that research data collection and extensive analysis has been conducted on and a comprehensive set of values and factors have been determined that can aid in estimation of attenuation due to rain. This paper seeks to provide a viable means by which a transmission engineer can be able to know the attenuation per kilometer due to the various models. This is achieved by designing a software calculator that provides the output of the attenuation per kilometer (dB/Km) while taking an input of rain rate for the different models available. The calculator is based on visual basic platform and works with forms.
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have been developed as the human-body monitoring systems to predict, diagnose, and treat diseases. Since the signal transmission in WBANs takes place in or around the human body the channel fading significantly affects packet error rate and overall network performance. This paper focuses on the design and demonstration of an ultra-wideband (UWB) modem to be used in the WBAN applications, and the evaluation of its performance over Rayleigh fading channel. Results show how the fading channel affects the performance of the system.
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