The entire world is transforming quickly under the present innovations. The Internet has become a basic requirement for everybody with the Web being utilized in every field. With the rapid increase in social network applications, people are using these platforms to voice them their opinions with regard to daily issues. Gathering and analyzing peoples' reactions toward buying a product, public services, and so on are vital. Sentiment analysis (or opinion mining) is a common dialogue preparing task that aims to discover the sentiments behind opinions in texts on varying subjects. In recent years, researchers in the field of sentiment analysis have been concerned with analyzing opinions on different topics such as movies, commercial products, and daily societal issues. Twitter is an enormously popular microblog on which clients may voice their opinions. Opinion investigation of Twitter data is a field that has been given much attention over the last decade and involves dissecting "tweets" (comments) and the content of these expressions. As such, this paper explores the various sentiment analysis applied to Twitter data and their outcomes.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the current age. It often results in subpar living conditions for a patient as they have to go through expensive and painful treatments to fight this cancer. One in eight women all over the world is affected by this disease. Almost half a million women annually do not survive this fight and die from this disease. Machine learning algorithms have proven to outperform all existing solutions for the prediction of breast cancer using models built on the previously available data. In this paper, a novel approach named BCD-WERT is proposed that utilizes the Extremely Randomized Tree and Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) for efficient feature selection and classification. WOA reduces the dimensionality of the dataset and extracts the relevant features for accurate classification. Experimental results on state-of-the-art comprehensive dataset demonstrated improved performance in comparison with eight other machine learning algorithms: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, Kernel Support Vector Machine, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, Stochastic Gradient Descent, Gaussian Naive Bayes and k-Nearest Neighbor. BCD-WERT outperformed all with the highest accuracy rate of 99.30% followed by SVM achieving 98.60% accuracy. Experimental results also reveal the effectiveness of feature selection techniques in improving prediction accuracy.
An essential objective of software development is to locate and fix defects ahead of schedule that could be expected under diverse circumstances. Many software development activities are performed by individuals, which may lead to different software bugs over the development to occur, causing disappointments in the not-so-distant future. Thus, the prediction of software defects in the first stages has become a primary interest in the field of software engineering. Various software defect prediction (SDP) approaches that rely on software metrics have been proposed in the last two decades. Bagging, support vector machines (SVM), decision tree (DS), and random forest (RF) classifiers are known to perform well to predict defects. This paper studies and compares these supervised machine learning and ensemble classifiers on 10 NASA datasets. The experimental results showed that, in the majority of cases, RF was the best performing classifier compared to the others.
As Blockchain innovation picks up popularity in many areas, it is frequently hailed as a sound innovation. Because of the decentralization and encryption, many imagine that data put away in a Blockchain is and will consistently be protected. Among various abstraction layers of Blockchain architecture, the consensus layer is the core component behind the performance and security measures of the Blockchain network. Consensus mechanisms are a critical component of a Blockchain system's longterm stability. Consensus forms the core of blockchain technology. Therefore, a range of consensus protocols has been introduced to maximize Blockchain systems" efficiency and meet application domains' individual needs. This research paper describes the layered architecture of Blockchain. A comprehensive review of mainstream consensus protocols mainly Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), Proof of Activity (PoA) is presented in the paper. These mainstream consensus protocols have been explained and detailed performance analysis of these consensus protocols has been done. We have proposed a performance matrix of these consensus protocols based on different parameters like Degree of decentralization, Latency, Fault Tolerance Rate, Scalability, etc. Consensus protocols being the core of a strong fault-tolerant secured blockchain system, the proposed work intends to help inappropriate protocol selection and further research on strengthening trust and ownership in the technology. Depending upon different parameters like decentralization which is low in POA compared to other protocols, whereas POW is non-scalable, so depending on the priority of a particular performance parameter, the paper will help in the selection of a specific protocol.
Recent advances in deep learning, coupled with the onslaught of unlabelled medical data have drawn ever-increasing research interests by discovering multiple levels of distributed representations and solving complex medical related problems. Malaria disease detection in early stage requires an accurate and precise diagnosis in order to achieve successful patient remission. This paper proposes a comprehensive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for identifying the presence of malaria parasites in thick blood smear images. The parameters of the scheme are pre-trained by functional link artificial neural network followed by sparse stacked autoencoder. The optimum size of the CAD scheme used in this research is 12500-2500-100-50-2, where the input layer has 12500 nodes and Softmax classifier output layer has 2 nodes. Moreover, the 10-fold cross validation reflects that the classification is reliable and is applicable to new patient blood smear images. The proposed CAD scheme has been evaluated using malaria blood smear image data set, achieving a detection accuracy of 89.10%, a sensitivity of 93.90% and specificity of 83.10%. The extensive comparative experiment suggests that the proposed CAD scheme provides richer effectiveness and efficiency for malaria data set compared to other deep learning techniques for better diagnosis decision and management. This work implements a novel approach to fast processing and will be a beneficial tool in disease identification.INDEX TERMS Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), Deep learning, malaria parasite detection, microscopic blood smear images, digital pathology, K-fold cross-validation.
In this article, a whale optimization-based neural synchronization has been proposed for the development of the key exchange protocol. At the time of exchange of sensitive information, intruders can effortlessly perform sniffing, spoofing, phishing, or Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack to tamper the vital information. Information needs to be secretly transmitted with high level of encryption by preserving the authentication, confidentiality, and integrity factors. Such stated requirements urge the researchers to develop a neural network-based fast and robust security protocol. A special neural network structure called Double Layer Tree Parity Machine (DLTPM) is proposed for neural synchronization. Two DLTPMs accept the common input and different weight vectors and update the weights using neural learning rules by exchanging their output. In some steps, it results in complete synchronization, and the weights of the two DLTMs become identical. These identical weights serve as a secret key. There is, however, hardly any research in the field of neural weight vector optimization using a nature-inspired algorithm for faster neural synchronization. In this article, whale optimization-based DLTPM is proposed. For faster synchronization, this proposed DLTPM model uses a whale algorithm optimized weight vector. This proposed DLTPM model is faster and has better security. This proposed technique has been passed through a series of parametric tests. The results have been compared with some recent techniques. The results of the proposed technique have shown effective and has robust potential.The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Jiafeng Xie.secret while he may be able to follow the structure of the algorithm. Chen et al. ; Liu et al. ; Chen et al. ; Wang et al. , ; Xiao et al. ; Zhang and Cao ; Wang et al. ; Dong et al.  described that the neural network synchronization approach offers the chance to solve enormous exchange problems. Rosen-Zvi et al. ; Lakshmanan et al.  ; Ni and Paul  recently showed that neural cryptography has the capability of achieving key exchange through neural synchronization of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). This proposed technique uses an ANN called the Double Layer Tree Parity Machine (DLTPM). By generating common inputs and sharing the outputs of such networks,
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) require accurate information to be shared among vehicles and infrastructure nodes for applications including accident information or pre-crash warnings, to name a few. Due to its sensitive nature, ITS applications are vulnerable against data integrity attacks where nodes transmit false information that results in wrong decision making by the applications. A characteristic of such attacks is that the false transmitted information is significantly different than the actual information. In this paper, we propose an Outlier Detection, Prioritization and Verification (ODPV) protocol that efficiently isolates false data and improves traffic management decisions. ODPV uses the isolation forest algorithm to detect outliers, fuzzy logic to prioritize outliers and C-V2X communications to verify the outliers. Extensive simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed protocol to isolate the outliers.
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