Leakage flows due to a poor fit can greatly reduce the mask protection efficiency. However, accurate quantification of leakages is lacking due to the absence of standardized tests and difficulties in quantifying mask gaps. The objective of this study is to quantify the leakage flows around surgical masks with gaps of varying areas and locations. An integrated ambient-mask-face-airway model was developed, with a pleated surgical mask covering an adult's face, nose, and chin. To study the gap effects, the mask edge along the facial interface was divided into different domains, which could be prescribed either as the mask media or air. Low Reynolds number k-ω turbulence model with porous media was used to simulate inspiratory flows. Experimentally measured resistances of two surgical masks were implemented in porous media zones. Results show that even a small gap of 1-cm2 area could cause a 17% leakage. A gap area of 4.3 cm2 at the nose bridge, the most frequent misfit when wearing a surgical mask, led to a leakage of 60%. For a given mask, the increase rate of leakage slowed down with increasing gap area. For a given gap, the leakage fraction is 30-40% lower for a mask with a resistance of 48.5 Pa than a mask of 146.0 Pa. Even though the flow dynamics were very different among gaps at different locations, the leakage intensity appeared relatively insensitive to the gap location. Therefore, correlations for the leakage as a function of the gap area were developed for the two masks.
Parametric studies on the optimization of baffles on vibration suppression of partially filled tanks coupled by structure have been widely conducted in literature. However, few studies focus on the effect of the position of the baffles on fluid flow stratification and dampening the motion. In the present study, a numerical investigation, an engineering analysis, and optimal design study were performed to determine the effect of external flow on circular obstacle baffles performance on suppressing the vibrations of coupled structure in a closed basin. The single degree of freedom model (mass–spring–damper) is used to model the structure that holds the tank. The coupled system is released from an initial displacement without a velocity. The governing mass, turbulent Navier–Stokes momentum, volume of fluid, and one degree of freedom structure equations are solved by the Pressure-Implicit with Splitting of Operators algorithm in fluids and Newmark method in structure. Based on a detailed study of transient structure motion coupled with sloshing dynamics, the optimal baffle location was achieved. Optimal position of the baffle and its width are systematically obtained with reference to the quiescent free surface.
Numerical study of the slip effects and radiative heat transfer on a steady state fully developed Williamson flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid; between parallel vertical walls of a microchannel with isothermal walls in a porous medium is performed. The slip effects are considered at both boundary conditions. Radiative highly absorbing medium is modeled by the Rosseland approximation. The non-dimensional governing Navier-Stokes and energy coupled partial differential equations formed a boundary problem are solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm by means of a shooting method. Numerical outcomes for the skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer represented by the local Nusselt number were presented even as the velocity and temperature profiles illustrated graphically and analyzed. The effects of the temperature number, Grashof number, thermal radiation parameter, Reynolds number, velocity slip length, Darcy number, and temperature jump, on the flow field and temperature field and their effects on the boundaries are presented and discussed.
PurposeNatural convection heat transfer combined with radiation heat transfer is used in electronic cooling. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermal loading characteristics of an enclosure.Design/methodology/approachThe goal is to investigate the effect of thermal radiation on thermal and flow characteristics of the cavity. The enclosure lower wall is at constant temperature and the upper wall is adiabatic while there are several discrete heat sources inside the cavity. In addition the effect of parameters such as heating number (Nr), aspect ratio (A), the number of heaters (N), and thermal radiation on the maximum and mean temperature of system, thermal loading characteristics of the system, Nusselt number, and the maximum stream function rate is performed. To solve the governing nonlinear differential equations (mass, momentum, and energy), a finite‐volume code based on Patankar's SIMPLE method is utilized.FindingsHeat transfer by natural convection solely and it's conjugation with thermal radiation on the thermal and flow characteristics of the system is studied. Also a parametric study illustrating the influence of the heating number, aspect ratio, the number of heaters, and thermal radiation on the maximum and mean temperature of system, thermal loading characteristics of the system, Nusselt number, and the maximum stream function rate is investigated. The results have revealed that the thermal radiation have an important effect on the thermal characteristics of system at low heating numbers.Research limitations/implicationsThe relevant governing parameters were: the heating number, Nr from 0.05 to 500, the cavity aspect ratio, A=H/L from 0.1 to 1 and the number of heaters, N, is an odd number ranging from 1 to 19Practical implicationsThis work is numerical investigation only but can have engineering application such as electronic cooling, transformers, fusion reactors technology, hot structures, fuel cells, fibrous insulations and solar‐energy drying systems.Originality/valueThe effect of radiation in enclosure with discrete heaters within fluid has not been addressed in the literature.
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