Stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) closely interact with tumor cells and affect tumor cell behavior in diverse manners. We herein investigated the mechanisms by which cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the functional polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in human cancer samples. The expression of CD68, CD14, CD163, CD200R, CD206, HLA-G, CD80, and CD86 was higher in CD14-positive cells co-cultured with the culture supernatants of CAFs established from OSCC specimens (CAF-educated cells) than in control cells. The gene expression level of ARG1, IL10, and TGFB1 was increased in CAF-educated cells. CAF-educated cells suppressed T cell proliferation more strongly than control cells, and the neutralization of TGF-β IL-10, or arginase I significantly restored T cell proliferation. We then investigated the relationship between the infiltration of CAFs and TAMs using tissue samples obtained from patients with OSCC. The infiltration of CAFs was associated with the numbers of CD68-positive and CD163-positive macrophages. It also correlated with lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and the TNM stage. The infiltration of CAFs was identified as an independent prognostic factor in OSCC. Our results indicate that CAFs play important roles in shaping the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment in OSCC by inducing the protumoral phenotype of TAMs. Therapeutic strategies to reverse CAF-mediated immunosuppression need to be considered.
Background:Amino-acid transporters are necessary for the tumour cell growth and survival, and have a crucial role in the development and invasiveness of cancer cells. But, it remains unclear about the prognostic significance of L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1), system ASC amino-acid transporter-2 (ASCT2), and xCT expression in patients with tongue cancer. We conducted the clinicopathological study to investigate the protein expression of these amino-acid transporters in tongue cancer.Methods:Eighty-five patients with surgically resected tongue cancer were evaluated. Tumour sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for LAT1, ASCT2, xCT, 4F2hc/CD98hc (4F2hc), Ki-67, and microvessel density (MVD) determined by CD34, and p53.Results:L-type amino-acid transporter 1 and 4F2hc were highly expressed in 61% (52 out of 85) and 45% (38 out of 47), respectively. ASC amino-acid transporter-2 and xCT were positively expressed in 59% (50 out of 85) and 21% (18 out of 85), respectively. The expression of both LAT1 and ASCT2 was significantly associated with disease staging, lymph-node metastasis, lymphatic permeation, 4F2hc expression and cell proliferation (Ki-67). xCT expression indicated a significant association with advanced stage and tumour factor. By univariate analysis, disease staging, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, LAT1, ASCT2, 4F2hc, and Ki-67 had a significant relationship with overall survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed that LAT1 was an independent prognostic factor for predicting poor prognosis.Conclusions:L-type amino-acid transporter 1 and ASCT2 can serve as a significant prognostic factor for predicting worse outcome after surgical treatment and may have an important role in the development and aggressiveness of tongue cancer.
Myeloid‐derived suppressor cells (MDSC) represent a heterogeneous population and have the potential to suppress immune responses via diverse mechanisms. In recent studies, a new subset of MDSC was identified by the markers CD14+ and HLA‐DR− in the peripheral blood from cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the proportions and characteristics of CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). As expected, the percentage of CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells was significantly elevated in patients relative to healthy donors and the sorted CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells were able to suppress effectively both the proliferation and IFN‐γ production of anti‐CD3/anti‐CD28 stimulated T cells, suggesting that CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells in patients with SCCHN contribute to the immune suppressive status. Furthermore, CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells revealed a higher level of CD86 and PD‐L1 expression and transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β production than CD14+ HLA‐DR+ cells. Addition of anti‐CD86 mAb, anti‐PD‐L1 mAb and anti‐TGF‐β mAb partially restored T‐cell proliferation and IFN‐γ production, respectively, indicating that the suppressive effects of CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells appear to be mediated by various molecules, including coinhibitory molecules and cytokines. Our data suggest that CD14+ HLA‐DR− cells act as potent immunosuppressive cells and particularly contribute to tumor escape from the host immune system in patients with SCCHN. (Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 976–983)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to play an important role in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In the present study, we determined whether CAFs within the tumor microenvironment (TME) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) contributed to promoting immunosuppression and evasion from immune surveillance. Six pairs of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were established from the resected tumor tissues of patients with HNSCC. The effects of CAFs and NFs on the functions of T cells were comparatively analyzed. CAFs expressed the co-regulatory molecules, B7H1 and B7DC, whereas NFs did not. The expression levels of cytokine genes, including those for IL6, CXCL8, TNF, TGFB1, and VEGFA, were higher in CAFs. T cell proliferation was suppressed more by CAFs or their supernatants than by NFs. Moreover, PBMCs co-cultured with the supernatants of CAFs preferentially induced T cell apoptosis and regulatory T cells over those co-cultured with the supernatants of NFs. A microarray analysis revealed that the level of genes related to the leukocyte extravasation and paxillin signaling pathways was higher in CAFs than in NFs. These results demonstrated that CAFs collaborated with tumor cells in the TME to establish an immunosuppressive network that facilitated tumor evasion from immunological destruction.
To address the molecular mechanisms of cementogenesis, we have isolated dental follicle cells and examined them to see if they contain cementoblast progenitors. Dental follicle tissue was dissected from the root surface of bovine tooth germ and cells were released by digestion with bacterial collagenase. The released cells were maintained as a bovine dental follicle cells (BDFC). To elucidate the differentiation capacity of BDFC, they were transplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice for 4 weeks. Transplanted BDFC formed cementumlike matrix; in contrast, bovine alveolar osteoblast (BAOB) transplants formed bonelike matrix, and bovine periodontal ligament cells (BPDL) formed a small amount of the cementumlike matrix. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that cementumlike matrix was positive for anti-cementum attachment protein monoclonal antibody, whereas bone-like matrix was negative. These results indicated that the BDFC contained cementoblast progenitors that were able to differentiate to cementoblasts in vivo. They also indicated that the BDFC are phenotypically distinct from BAOB and BPDL, and provide a useful model for investigating molecular mechanisms of cementogenesis.
The purpose of this study was to develop an acrylic resin with antifungal properties by leveraging the photocatalytic activity of apatite-coated titanium dioxide (Ap-TiO2). Candida albicans was used for antifungal activity assay of the specimen plates under ultraviolet A (UVA) with a black light source. Statistically significant decreases in cell viability in acrylic resins containing 5 wt％ and 10 wt％ Ap-TiO2 were observed after irradiation for two, four, and six hours (P<0.01), when compared to the control. As for the flexural strength and modulus values of acrylic resins mixed with Ap-TiO2 and TiO2 particles, they varied before and after irradiation. Among the tested specimens, a 5 wt％ content of Ap-TiO2 in acrylic resin exceeded the requirements of ISO 1567. It was thus suggested that acrylic resin containing 5 wt％ Ap-TiO2 could exert antifungal effects on C. albicans, while at the same time maintain adequate mechanical properties for clinical use.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.