Type I interferon (IFN) is critical for controlling pathogen infection; however, its regulatory mechanisms in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) still remain unclear. Here, we have shown that nucleic acid sensors cGAS-, STING-, MDA5-, MAVS-, or transcription factor IRF3-deficient mice produced high amounts of type I IFN-α and IFN-β (IFN-α/β) in the serum and were resistant to lethal plasmodium yoelii YM infection. Robust IFN-α/β production was abolished when gene encoding nucleic acid sensor TLR7, signaling adaptor MyD88, or transcription factor IRF7 was ablated or pDCs were depleted. Further, we identified SOCS1 as a key negative regulator to inhibit MyD88-dependent type I IFN signaling in pDCs. Finally, we have demonstrated that pDCs, cDCs, and macrophages were required for generating IFN-α/β-induced subsequent protective immunity. Thus, our findings have identified a critical regulatory mechanism of type I IFN signaling in pDCs and stage-specific function of immune cells in generating potent immunity against lethal YM infection.
Malaria infection triggers vigorous host immune responses; however, the parasite ligands, host receptors, and the signaling pathways responsible for these reactions remain unknown or controversial. Malaria parasites primarily reside within RBCs, thereby hiding themselves from direct contact and recognition by host immune cells. Host responses to malaria infection are very different from those elicited by bacterial and viral infections and the host receptors recognizing parasite ligands have been elusive. Here we investigated mouse genome-wide transcriptional responses to infections with two strains of Plasmodium yoelii (N67 and N67C) and discovered differences in innate response pathways corresponding to strain-specific disease phenotypes. Using in vitro RNAi-based gene knockdown and KO mice, we demonstrated that a strong type I IFN (IFN-I) response triggered by RNA polymerase III and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, not Toll-like receptors (TLRs), binding of parasite DNA/RNA contributed to a decline of parasitemia in N67-infected mice. We showed that conventional dendritic cells were the major sources of early IFN-I, and that surface expression of phosphatidylserine on infected RBCs might promote their phagocytic uptake, leading to the release of parasite ligands and the IFN-I response in N67 infection. In contrast, an elevated inflammatory response mediated by CD14/TLR and p38 signaling played a role in disease severity and early host death in N67C-infected mice. In addition to identifying cytosolic DNA/RNA sensors and signaling pathways previously unrecognized in malaria infection, our study demonstrates the importance of parasite genetic backgrounds in malaria pathology and provides important information for studying human malaria pathogenesis.
The evolution of microphysical characteristics of a rainband in Typhoon Matmo (2014) over eastern China, through its onset, developing, mature, and dissipating stages, is documented using observations from an S band polarimetric Doppler radar and a two‐dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD). The drop size distributions observed by the 2DVD and retrieved from the polarimetric radar measurements indicate that the convection in the rainband generally contains smaller drops and higher number concentrations than the typical maritime type convection described in Bringi et al. (2003). The average mass‐weighted mean diameter (Dm) of convective precipitation in the rainband is about 1.41 mm, and the average logarithmic normalized intercept (Nw) is 4.67 log10 mm−1 m−3. To further investigate the dominant microphysical processes, the evolution of the vertical structures of polarimetric variables is examined. Results show that complex ice processes are involved above the freezing level, while it is most likely that the accretion and/or coalescence processes dominate below the freezing level throughout the rainband life cycle. A combined examination of the polarimetric measurements and profiles of estimated vertical liquid and ice water contents indicates that the conversion of cloud water into rainwater through cloud water accretion by raindrops plays a dominant role in producing heavy rainfall. The high estimated precipitation efficiency of 50% also suggests that cloud water accretion is the dominant mechanism for producing heavy rainfall. This study represents the first time that radar and 2DVD observations are used together to characterize the microphysical characteristics and precipitation efficiency for typhoon rainbands in China.
Epigenetic factors have been implicated in the regulation of CD4+ T cell differentiation. Jmjd3 plays a role in many biological processes, but its in vivo function in T cell differentiation remains unknown. Here, we report that Jmjd3 ablation promotes CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th2 and Th17 cells in the small intestine and colon, and inhibits T cell differentiation into Th1 cells under different cytokine-polarizing conditions and in a Th1-dependent colitis model. Jmjd3 deficiency also restrains the plasticity of the conversion of Th2, Th17 or Treg cells to Th1 cells. The skewing of T cell differentiation is concomitant with changes in the expression of key transcription factors and cytokines. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 levels in Jmjd3-deficient cells are correlated with altered gene expression through interactions with specific transcription factors. Our results identify Jmjd3 as an epigenetic factor in T cell differentiation via changes in histone methylation and target gene expression.
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