Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal
diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ
transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome.
Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of
potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the
attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide
guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition,
assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors.
There is a relative shortage of appropriate organs available for transplantation. The appropriate diagnosis of brain death, a suitable family approach and the maintenance of the deceased donor are fundamental in addressing this issue. The intensive care physician plays a key role in the maintenance of the deceased donor, thereby reducing losses and increasing the number of successful transplants.
Westphal GA, Silva E, Gonçalves AR Caldeira Filho M, Poli-de-Figueiredo LF. Pulse oximetry wave variation as a noninvasive tool to assess volume status in cardiac surgery. Clinics. 2009;64(4):337-43.
OBJECTIVE:To compare variations of plethysmographic wave amplitude (∆Ppleth) and to determine the percent difference between inspiratory and expiratory pulse pressure (∆Pp) cutoff values for volume responsiveness in a homogenous population of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. INTRODUCTION: Intra-thoracic pressure variations interfere with stroke volume variation. Pulse pressure variations through arterial lines during mechanical ventilation have been recommended for the estimation of fluid responsiveness. Pulse oximetry may offer a non-invasive plethysmographic method to evaluate pulse pressure; this may be useful for guiding fluid replacement. METHODS: Controlled, prospective study in cardiac surgery patients under controlled ventilation. Simultaneous digital recordings of arterial pressure and plethysmographic waves were performed. ∆Pp, systolic pressure (∆Ps), ∆Ppleth, and systolic component (∆Spleth) were calculated. A ∆Pp ≥ 13% identified fluid-responsive patients. Volume expansion was performed in responsive subjects. Systolic and amplitude components of pressure and plethysmographic waves were compared. RESULTS: In 50 measurements from 43 patients, ∆Pp was correlated with (Ppleth (r=0.90, p<0.001), (Ps (r=0.90, p<0.001), and (Spleth (r=0.73, p<0.001). An aArea under ROC curve (AUC) identified the fluid responsiveness thresholds: (Ppleth of 11% (AUC = 0.95±0.04), (Ps of 8% (AUC=0.93±0.05), and (Spleth of 32% (AUC=0.82±0.07). A (Ppleth value ≥ 11% predicted (Pp ≥ 13% with 100% specificity and 91% sensitivity. Volume expansion, performed in 20 patients, changed (Pp, (Ppleth, (Ps and (Spleth significantly (p<0.008). CONCLUSIONS: ∆Ppleth is well correlated with ∆Pp and constitutes a simple and non-invasive method for assessing fluid responsiveness in patients following cardiac surgery.
Brain death (BD) alters the pathophysiology of patients and may damage the kidneys, the lungs, the heart and the liver. To obtain better quality transplant organs, intensive care physicians in charge of the maintenance of deceased donors should attentively monitor these organs. Careful hemodynamic, ventilatory and bronchial clearance management minimizes the loss of kidneys and lungs. The evaluation of cardiac function and morphology supports the transplant viability assessment of the heart. The monitoring of liver function, the management of the patient's metabolic status and the evaluation of viral serology are fundamental for organ selection by the transplant teams and for the care of the transplant recipient.
OBJECTIVEThese guidelines are aimed at contributing to the institutional coordination of organ transplantation and will provide "real world" guidelines that are appropriate in the Brazilian context for the uniform care of the deceased donor. Ultimately, this aim of this guide is to increase the quality and quantity of transplantable organs.
METHODOLOGYThe Writing and Planning Committee, comprised of young intensive care physicians and intensive medicine residents, conducted an extensive literature review. From this review, they formulated questions and forwarded the questions to all of the authors of this article. These initial questions served as the starting point for receiving suggestions for the formulation of other questions and definitions.The final questions were revised by the Executive Committee and were returned to the authors to develop the guidelines presented in this article.The questions guided the literature review, which was conducted using the P.I.C.O. methodology where P stands for the target population, I for the intervention, C for the control or comparative group and O for the clinical outcome.The retrieved articles were critically analyzed and categorized according to their grade of recommendation and the strength of the presented evidence in the following manner:
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