These mechanisms contribute actively to the generation of a microenvironment in the lymph nodes that suppresses the activation of encephalitogenic T cells, resulting in the downregulation of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system.
Immunosenescence is associated to aging and among many changes in immune response is reported a reduced response to vaccination and an increase in the number of cases of autoimmunity, caused by autoantibodies known as natural antibodies whose function, according to reports, would be protection against infection and inflammation. Although immunosenescence is an irreversible process, regular moderate exercise can attenuate some aspects of the decline in the immune system. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the humoral immune response in physically active elderly individuals before and 30 days after vaccination against influenza virus. The results showed that the percentage of individuals positive for antinuclear antibodies and serum immunoglobulin M and G levels after vaccination were higher in the group that exercised regularly than in the sedentary group. We were also able to demonstrate a significant correlation between levels of natural autoantibodies and response to vaccination.
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. Methods. Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, n = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, n = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. Results. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. Conclusion. For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon.
Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise program for migraine prevention, plasma cytokines concentrations (TNF-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p70), and anxiety in women with migraine. Methods: Women with episodic migraine (ICHD-II), aged between 20 and 50 years, who had never taken any prophylactic medication, and were physically inactive in the past 12 months were recruited from the university’s hospital and a tertiary headache clinic between March 2012 and March 2015. Migraine attacks were recorded in headache diaries, cytokines were quantified by flow cytometry, and anxiety was assessed by the 7-item General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Blood sampling and psychometric interviews were undertaken on headache-free days. Results: Twenty participants ([mean ± SD] age 33.8 ± 10.5; BMI 26 ± 5.2) were randomly assigned and received intervention (“trained”: n = 10) or entered on a waitlist (“inactive”: n = 10). There were no differences between groups regarding patients’ characteristics and baseline data. Days with migraine (p = 0.001), IL-12p70 levels (p = 0.036), and GAD-7 score (p = 0.034) were significantly reduced in the trained group after the intervention period, but there were no significant changes in these variables in the inactive group. There was no change in the levels of the other cytokines in either group. There were positive correlations between a reduction in IL-12p70 level and a reduction in the number of days with migraine (R2 = 0.19, p = 0.045), and GAD-7 score (R2 = 0.53, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The clinical and psychological therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise in treatment-naïve women with migraine may involve the downregulation of IL-12p70.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the inflammatory profile and mood states in the different phases of the menstrual cycle in soccer players with and without premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods: Data on the menstrual cycle and mood states were collected using the Daily Symptom Report and the Brunel Mood Scale. Cytokine and stress hormone concentrations were measured in urine by flow cytometry before and after a game in the luteal phase and in the follicular phase of one menstrual cycle. Results: In all, 59.6% of the athletes had PMS. The PMS group showed higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 than the athletes without PMS. After the game, IL-6 decreased in the follicular phase and the luteal phase. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels were higher in the group without PMS during the post-game follicular phase than before the game. In the PMS group, tension was higher in the follicular phase before the game and depression was higher in the pre-game luteal phase than in the group without PMS. The PMS group also presented a negative correlation between depression and IL-10 levels in the pre-game follicular phase. Finally, in the pre-game luteal phase were found positive correlations between growth hormone and IL-10. Conclusion: PMS influences the inflammatory condition related to mood states and stress hormones in female soccer players.
Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and anti-atherogenic function.
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