The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg) and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon), being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E. itajara local conservation and management practices by adding important new biological data into the decision-making process.O mero Epinephelus itajara é uma espécie de peixe marinho de grandes proporções (>400 kg) e criticamente ameaçado, protegido em muitos países, incluindo o Brasil. Através da aplicação de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, investigamos o conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática, especialistas na captura de E. itajara na baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A pescaria de espinhel direcionada à E. itajara parece ser uma tradição em desaparecimento, com um detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local que está também sendo perdido com o tempo. Nosso estudo mostra que pescadores envolvidos em pescarias recentes, como a pesca subaquática, podem também possuir detalhado sistema de conhecimento ecológico local. Através da análise e integração do conhecimento ecológico local dos informantes, diversos aspectos da história de vida de E. itajara foram registrados. Esta espécie é encontrada na porção interna e externa da ...
Goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) aggregations and relative abundances were described and mapped through the use of fishermen's local ecological knowledge in Babitonga Bay in southern Brazil. Six well-experienced informants were asked to individually provide information about goliath grouper abundance and distribution, drawn over a satellite image of the study area, which was later overlaid and gathered into a final map. According to our informants, the goliath grouper occurs along a broad salinity and depth range, from shallow estuarine areas (less than 5 m deep) with high freshwater input (smaller individuals, up to 150 kg) to coastal marine-dominated environments (at least 35 m deep); (larger individuals more common, frequently reaching more than 300 kg). Fishermen referred to goliath groupers inhabiting hard substrates such as rocky reefs around islands and continental shores, submerged rocky outcrops and shipwrecks (juveniles and adults). At least two aggregation sites mapped (ranging from 2 to 60 individuals) could be concluded as spawning aggregation sites through evidence of high abundance and spawning activity. Priority research and conservation targets were identified and discussed for Babitonga Bay (e.g., design of a tagging experimental program and establishment of a marine protected area). Fishers' resource mapping provided a means of exchanging information among various disciplines while maintaining methodological rigor in a clear and straightforward way of presenting fishers' knowledge. The use of fishers' sketch maps is a promising tool for marine conservation in Brazil, with special regard to adaptive co-management regimes, where frequent environmental re-evaluations are needed.A abundância relativa e agregações de meros Epinephelus itajara foram descritas e mapeadas através do conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da baía Babitonga, sul do Brasil. Seis informantes muito experientes desenharam individualmente sobre uma imagem de satélite da área de estudo informações sobre abundância e distribuição de meros, seguindo-se de uma sobreposição das imagens em um mapa final. O mero ocorre ao longo de uma larga faixa de salinidade e profundidade (principalmente juvenis), de áreas estuarinas rasas (menos que 5 m de profundidade) com alta incidência de água doce, até ambientes costeiros marinhos (ao menos até 35 m de profundidade); (indivíduos maiores são mais comuns, alcançando mais de 300 kg). A espécie é também encontrada habitando substratos consolidados como recifes rochosos ao redor de ilhas e continente, parcéis submersos e emersos e naufrágios. Ao menos duas das agregações mapeadas (variando de dois a 60 indivíduos observados) puderam ser consideradas agregações reprodutivas através de evidências de alta abundância e atividade reprodutiva. Ações de pesquisa e conservação foram identificadas e discutidas para a baía Babitonga. O mapeamento de recursos possibilitou uma forma de trocar informações entre várias disciplinas, mantendo rigor metodológico e apresentando o conhecimento dos pescad...
Investigations were carried out about the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) a serranid protogynous hermaphrodite fish inhabitant of rocky bottoms from shallow waters up to 200 m depth. Samples were caught in the islands that form Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (SC - Brazil) and the coastal islands near Florianópolis region from March 1998 to May 2000. Data from samples of juvenile groupers on intertidal pools were used to link their occurrence in the pools to the post-spawning season. To describe the histological changes on gonads along the reproductive cycle and to establish maturation scales, 109 groupers were histologically tested for sex determination. First maturation size was determined for females (L50=470 mm; r²=0.99). The results of calculated gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic (HSI) indexes, showed that maturation occurred along the spring months and the spawning activity during the summer with a peak in December. Liver recovery (HSI elevation) was evident in the autumn, was the post spawning season. The relationship between length and weight was W = 9 · 10-6 · TL3.1149 (r²=0.998; n=246).
Este trabalho trata sobre a biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) um peixe teleósteo pertencente à família Serranidae, hermafrodita protogínico e característico do litoral rochoso, que vive desde águas rasas até os 200 m de profundidade. As amostragens foram realizadas nas ilhas que compõem a Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (SC) e ilhas costeiras próximas da região de Florianópolis entre março de 1998 e maio de 2000. Dados de coletas de juvenis em poças de marés foram utilizados visando relacionar a sua ocorrência nestes ambientes com o período de pós-reprodução. Procedeu-se à análise histológica de 109 exemplares, a partir da qual foram descritas as alterações histológicas nas gônadas ao longo do seu ciclo sexual e foram estabelecidas as escalas de maturação. Desta forma determinou-se um tamanho de primeira maturação para as fêmeas (L50=470 mm; r²=0,99). O comportamento dos valores dos índices calculados (Índice Hepatossomático (IHS) e Índice Gonadossomático (IGS)) elucidou um período reprodutivo com maturação das gônadas ao longo dos meses de primavera, vindo a desovar na estação do verão, sendo nítida a recuperação do fígado (elevação do IHS) no outono, pós reprodução. Calculou-se também a relação peso comprimento P = 9 · 10-6 · CT 3,1149 (r²=0,998; n=246)
The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara (Epinephelidae) is an exceptionally large marine fish that inhabits sub-tropical and tropical waters of the Americas and western Africa. Due to a lack of readily observable morphological variation in specimens across its range, the goliath grouper has been regarded as a single species. We tested the hypothesis that Pacific and West Atlantic populations constitute a single species by analyzing nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. We found numerous fixed genetic differences for mitochondrial loci between Pacific and West Atlantic goliath grouper (genetic distance D ≈ 3.5% at 16S and D ≈ 6% at cytochrome b; ϕ st = 0.98 [p < 0.001] for 16S and ϕ st = 0.98 [p < 0.001] for cytochrome b). The nuclear S7 intron showed 3 fixed nucleotide differences between Pacific and West Atlantic populations. Within the West Atlantic, we found few absolute genetic differences (D < 0.01 at 16S and D < 0.02 at cytochrome b), but statistically significant population structure based on haplotype frequency data (ϕ st = 0.04 [p = 0.05] at 16S; ϕ st = 0.14 [p < 0.001] at cytochrome b). These data indicate that (1) goliath grouper in the West Atlantic are subdivided into discrete populations, (2) goliath grouper populations in the Pacific and western Atlantic represent 2 (or more) distinct species, and (3) these distinct populations/species require separate management and conservation strategies. We resurrect the species Epinephelus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868) for Pacific goliath grouper. KEY WORDS: Epinephelus itajara · Epinephelus quinquefasciatus · Phylogeography · EpinephelidaeResale or republication not permitted without written consent of the publisher OPEN PEN ACCESS CCESS Contribution to the Theme Section 'Range-wide status and conservation of the goliath grouper'Endang Species Res: 7: 167-174, 2009 tinue to be at the forefront of conservation efforts. Surprisingly, this basic information is lacking in many areas, despite its obvious importance for conservation measures.In the marine environment, biodiversity inventories often reflect the fact that marine species tend to be more broadly distributed than their terrestrial counterparts, with some organisms ranging more than 10 000 km (Jablonski & Lutz 1983). With the now widespread use of molecular genetic techniques, it has become clear that cryptic genetic diversity may confound estimates of both species ranges and biodiversity (reviewed in Bickford et al. 2006). Species once thought to be distributed over immense oceanic expanses are now known to be comprised of discreet lineages that may or may not occur in sympatry (reviewed in Rocha et al. 2007). Although this phenomenon was thought to occur most commonly in small or difficult-to-study organisms, recent evidence shows that these cryptic genetic lineages also occur amongst Earth's largest and most well-studied marine animals (e.g. Bass et al. 2005, Quattro et al. 2006, Vianna et al. 2006. In addition, these genetic studies often elucidate genetic patterns that reflect...
A shallow-water fish assemblage, over a soft, sandy bottom, at Canto Grande, Santa Catarina, Brazil, was sampled with a beach seine. Sampling was undertaken at 3 h intervals over 24 h on a bimonthly basis between April 1996 and February 1997. There was a seasonal variation in the number of species, density of fishes and biomass with the highest values in February (38 species, 257.6 fish 1000 m Ϫ2 , 2286.4 g 1000 m Ϫ2). A total of 67 species, belonging to 56 genera and 33 families were collected and the assemblage was dominated by seven species belonging to three families: Atherinella brasiliensis (Atherinidae); Brevoortia pectinata, Harengula clupeola and Sardinella brasiliensis (Clupeidae); Anchoviella lepidontostole, Cetengraulis edentulus and Lycengraulis grossidens (Engraulidae). Species diversity (HЈ) and equitability (JЈ) were medium to high throughout the year due to the low dominance. The largest change in the assemblage structure occurred between winter months (July and August) and the other seasons. None of the dominant species can be classified as a resident. Main predators were Pomatomus saltator (winter) and Trichiurus lepturus (summer). Most of the species observed were either juvenile fish or small pelagic and strongly gregarious species.
Wave action in sandy beach surf zones and its influence on species composition were evaluated at three sites at Pontal do Paraná, Paraná State, between June/2004 and May/2005. At each sampling site, five hauls were performed monthly using a 15 m long, 2.6 m height beach seine with a 5 mm mesh-size. Samplings were carried out at low water spring tides during daylight. A total of 26,866 fishes were collected, amounting to a total weight of 84,838 kg, which were distributed amongst 28 families and 63 taxa. Multi- and univariated methods used indicated that sheltered and moderately exposed beach samples had similar ichthyofaunal composition, being clupeids and engraulids the most abundant at these beaches. Although abiotic factors differed significantly between beaches, depth appears to exert the major influence on ichthyofauna structure by providing less turbulent waters which might have permitted shoals maintenance. Conversely, exposed beach samples differed largely from the other beaches and were influenced primarily by wave height and salinity variables. These were displayed at CCA diagram and through the occurrence of P. virginicus, M. littoralis and T. goodei.
A ação das ondas em zonas de arrebentação de praias arenosas e sua influência na composição de espécies foram avaliadas em três praias em Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Cinco arrastos mensais foram realizados em cada local amostral durante maré de sizígia em período diurno, usando uma rede de arrasto de 15 m de comprimento, 2,6 m de altura e malha de 5 mm. Um total de 26.866 peixes foram coletados pesando aproximadamente 84 kg e distribuídos em 28 famílias e 63 taxa. Métodos multi- e univariados utilizados indicaram que as amostras das praias protegidas e moderadas foram semelhantes em composição da ictiofauna, sendo os clupeídeos e engraulídeos os mais abundantes nestas praias. Por mais que os fatores abióticos sejam diferentes entre as praias, a profundidade parece exercer maior influência na estruturação da ictiofauna provendo águas menos turbulentas, o que pode ter permitido a manutenção de cardumes. Em tendência oposta, as amostras da praia exposta diferem em grande parte das outras sendo influenciada principalmente pelas variáveis altura de onda e salinidade mostradas no diagrama CCA e pela ocorrência de P. virginicus, M. littoralis e T. goodei
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.