Among pregnant women with symptomatic, PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection, birth defects possibly associated with ZIKV infection were present in 7% of fetuses and infants. Defects occurred more frequently in fetuses and infants whose mothers had been infected early in pregnancy. Longer-term follow-up of infants is required to assess any manifestations not detected at birth. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02916732 .).
Following reports of increased IgE in severe malaria and hypothesizing that helminth coinfections could modify its outcome, we conducted a retrospective case-control study to establish whether helminths affect the evolution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Some 182 severe cases, 315 mild controls and 40 controls with circulating schizonts were examined for intestinal helminths. Comparing cerebral malaria with mild controls, Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with a protective adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.58 (0. 32-1.03) P = 0.06, for coinfection with Ascaris and Necator americanus, OR = 0.39 (0.17-0.88) P = 0.02. Protection followed a dose-effect trend (P = 0.008). When comparing cerebral malaria cases and controls with circulating schizonts the OR was 0.25 (0.009-0.67) P = 0.006. We hypothesized that Ascaris infected patients may have had decreased cyto-adherence, possibly through endothelial cell receptor downregulation and/or decreased splenic clearance leading to the absence of selection of virulent P. falciparum strains. IgE-anti-IgE immune complexes resulting from helminth preinfection may have an important role in influencing clinical presentation of severe malaria, and in establishing malaria tolerance, through the CD23/NO pathway.
BackgroundDengue and malaria are two major arthropod-borne infections in tropical areas, but dual infections were only described for the first time in 2005. Reports of these concomitant infections are scarce and there is no evidence of more severe clinical and biological pictures than single infections.MethodsTo compare co-infections to dengue alone and malaria alone, a retrospective matched-pair study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 among patients admitted in the emergency department of Cayenne hospital, French Guiana.Results104 dengue and malaria co-infection cases were identified during the study period and 208 individuals were matched in two comparison groups: dengue alone and malaria alone. In bivariate analysis, co-infection clinical picture was more severe than separated infections, in particular using the severe malaria WHO criteria. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with co-infection versus dengue were: masculine gender, CRP level > 50 mg/L, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L, and low haematocrit <36% and independent factors significantly associated with co-infections versus malaria were red cells transfusion, low haematocrit < 36%, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L and low Plasmodium parasitic load < 0.001%.ConclusionsIn the present study, dengue and malaria co-infection clinical picture seems to be more severe than single infections in French Guiana, with a greater risk of deep thrombocytopaenia and anaemia.
Direct examination of May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears or tissues in suspected histoplasmosis is a simple means of confirming the diagnosis in resource-poor settings. Studies of prognostic factors should further refine indication criteria to guide first-line treatment choice between amphotericin B and itraconazole. The association of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis is frequent in HIV patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that may be difficult to resolve in resource-poor settings. It is important that affordable generic drugs for treating histoplasmosis be made widely available in resource-poor countries.
BackgroundMalaria is endemic in French Guiana, an overseas territory of France on the Guiana Shield. Since 2005, notified malaria cases are decreasing. However, new data show that malaria affects many Brazilian gold miners working illegally in French Guiana, the majority of whom are not counted in official data. In addition, one major concern is the usual practice of improper self-treatment in this mining population, raising fear of the development of anti-malarial resistance. This prospective study, conducted in 2015, aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in illegal gold miners working in French Guiana.MethodsThe recruitment of gold miners was carried out in resting sites along the French Guiana-Suriname border, where they go for supplies, medical care or leisure. After recording agreement, three malaria diagnostic methods were performed: rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and PCR.ResultsAmong 421 persons recruited in the study, malaria prevalence, detected by nested-PCR, was 22.3 % (CI [18.3–26.3], n = 94/421) of which 84 % were asymptomatic.ConclusionsThis significant malaria reservoir in a mobile and illegal population with difficult access to a health care system raises the threat of artemisinin resistance and puts the population of the Guiana Shield at risk of new transmission foci while countries of the region aim at malaria elimination. Even though French legislation may hamper dealing with this population, France must face the reality of malaria in illegal gold miners in order to meet its commitment to malaria elimination.
BackgroundIn French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population.MethodA prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname. Health status was assessed through medical examination, past medical history, haemoglobin concentration, and HIV and malaria testing. A questionnaire was used to collect data about the migration itinerary and life conditions on mining sites.ResultsAmong the 421 adults included in the study, 93.8% (395/421) were Brazilian, mainly from Maranhão (55.7%, 220/395), the poorest Brazilian state. The sex ratio was 2.4. Overall, 48% of persons never went to school or beyond the primary level. The median time spent in gold mining was quite long (10 years), with a high turn-over. One third of the surveyed population (37.1%, 156/421) had high blood pressure, and only two had a medical follow-up. Most persons had experienced malaria (89.3%, 376/421). They declared frequent arboviroses and digestive disorders. Active leishmaniasis was observed in 8.3% of gold miners. Among women, 28.5% were anemic. Concerning HIV, 36.6% (154/421) of persons, mainly men, never got tested before and 6 were tested positive, which represented an HIV prevalence of 1.43% (95%CI =0.29–2.5).ConclusionThese findings support the hypothesis that mining in remote areas is linked to several specific illnesses. Theoretically, gold miners would be presumed to start their economical migration to French Guiana as a healthy group. However, their strenuous working and living conditions there lead to poor health caused by infectious and non infectious diseases. This description of their health status is precious for health policy planners in French Guiana given the importance of controlling communicable disease, and the severity and range of specific illnesses acquired by this neglected population.Trial registrationClinical trial registration PRS N° NCT02903706.Retrospectively registered 09/13/2016.
In a prospective study of the total population of 5 hamlets on the western border of Thailand, all subjects were screened for helminth infections; during the following year, the incidence of malaria was recorded. Patients were not treated for helminth infections. Among 731 villagers, helminth-infected subjects were more likely to develop falciparum malaria during the following year (adjusted risk ratio 2.24, range 1.4-3.6; P = 0.001). The risk of developing falciparum malaria increased with the number of helminth species (P =0.036). Whereas in other studies helminths were associated with protection from severe complications of malaria, it seemed here that helminth-infected patients were more likely to develop malaria. It is suggested that a helminth-mediated Th2 shift may have complex consequences on malaria, decreasing antisporozoite immunity, but protecting against severe malaria.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.