Detailed chemical abundances for five stars in two Galactic globular clusters, NGC 5466 and NGC 5024, are presented from high resolution optical (from the HobbyEberley Telescope) and infrared spectra (from the SDSS-III APOGEE survey). We find [Fe/H] = -1.97 ± 0.13 dex for NGC 5466, and [Fe/H] = -2.06 ± 0.13 dex for NGC 5024, and the typical abundance pattern for globular clusters for the remaining elements, e.g., both show evidence for mixing in their light element abundance ratios (C, N), and AGB contributions in their heavy element abundances (Y, Ba, and Eu). These clusters were selected to examine chemical trends that may correlate them with the Sgr dwarf galaxy remnant, but at these low metallicities no obvious differences from the Galactic abundance pattern are found. Regardless, we compare our results from the optical and infrared analyses to find that oxygen and silicon abundances determined from the infrared spectral lines are in better agreement with the other alpha-element ratios and with smaller random errors.
SPHERE is the VLT second generation planet hunter instrument. Installed since may 2014 on UT3, the system has been commissionned and verified for more than one year now and routinely delivers unprecedented images of star surroundings, exoplanets and dust disks. The exceptionnal performance required for this kind of observation makes the appointment: a repeatable Strehl Ratio of 90% in H band, a rough contrast level of firstname.lastname@example.org arcsec, and reaches 10-6 at the same separation after differential imaging (SDI, ADI). The instrument also presents high contrast levels in the visible and an unprecedented 17mas diffraction-limited resolution at 0.65 microns wavelength. SAXO is the SPHERE XAO system, allowing the system to reach its final detectivity. Its high performance and therefore highly sensitive capacities turns a new eye on telescope environement. Even if XAO performance are reached as expected, some unexpected limitations are here described and a first work around is proposed and discussed. Spatial limitation: wave-front aberrations have been identified, deviating from kolmogorov statistics, and therefore not easily seen and compensated for by the XAO system. The impact of this limitations results in a degraded performance in some particular low wind conditions. Solutions are developped and tested on sky to propose a new operation procedure reducing this limitation. Temporal limitation: high amplitude vibrations on the low order modes have been issued, due to telescope environment and XAO behaviour. Again, a solution is developped and an assessment of its performance is dressed. The potential application of these solutions to E-ELT is proposed.
We propose and apply two methods to estimate pupil plane phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both Phase Diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the 'low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in the SPHERE system in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the simulated LWE using both methods, and show that they are complimentary to one another. We also demonstrate that single image Phase Diversity (also known as Phase Retrieval with diversity) is also capable of estimating the simulated LWE when using the natural de-focus on the SPHERE/DTTS imager. We demonstrate that Phase Diversity can estimate the LWE to within 30 nm RMS WFE, which is within the allowable tolerances to achieve a target SPHERE contrast of 10 −6 . Finally, we simulate 153 nm RMS of piston errors on the mirror segments of Keck and produce NIRC2 images subject to these effects. We show that a single, diverse image with 1.5 waves (PV) of focus can be used to estimate this error to within 29 nm RMS WFE, and a perfect correction of our estimation would increase the Strehl ratio of a NIRC2 image by 12%.
The chemical abundances for five metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic bulge have been determined from H-band infrared spectroscopy taken with the RAVEN multi-object adaptive optics science demonstrator and the IRCS spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. Three of these stars are in the Galactic bulge and have metallicities between -2.1 < [Fe/H] < −1.5, and high [α/Fe] ∼+0.3, typical of Galactic disk and bulge stars in this metallicity range; [Al/Fe] and [N/Fe] are also high, whereas [C/Fe] < +0.3. An examination of their orbits suggests that two of these stars may be confined to the Galactic bulge and one is a halo trespasser, though proper motion values used to calculate orbits are quite uncertain. An additional two stars in the globular cluster M22 show [Fe/H] values consistent to within 1 σ, although one of these two stars has [Fe/H] = -2.01 ± 0.09, which is on the low end for this cluster. The [α/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] values differ by 2 σ, with the most metal-poor star showing significantly higher values for these elements. M22 is known to show element abundance variations, consistent with a multi-population scenario (i.e. Marino et al. 2009Marino et al. , 2011Alves-Brito et al. 2012) though our results cannot discriminate this clearly given our abundance uncertainties. This is the first science demonstration of multi-object adaptive optics with high resolution infrared spectroscopy, and we also discuss the feasibility of this technique for use in the upcoming era of 30-m class telescope facilities.
Predictive wavefront control is an important and rapidly developing field of adaptive optics (AO). Through the prediction of future wavefront effects, the inherent AO system servo-lag caused by the measurement, computation, and application of the wavefront correction can be significantly mitigated. This lag can impact the final delivered science image, including reduced strehl and contrast, and inhibits our ability to reliably use faint guidestars. We summarize here a novel method for training deep neural networks for predictive control based on an adversarial prior. Unlike previous methods in the literature, which have shown results based on previously generated data or for open-loop systems, we demonstrate our network’s performance simulated in closed loop. Our models are able to both reduce effects induced by servo-lag and push the faint end of reliable control with natural guidestars, improving K-band Strehl performance compared to classical methods by over 55% for 16th magnitude guide stars on an 8-meter telescope. We further show that LSTM based approaches may be better suited in high-contrast scenarios where servo-lag error is most pronounced, while traditional feed forward models are better suited for high noise scenarios. Finally, we discuss future strategies for implementing our system in real-time and on astronomical telescope systems.
Focal plane wavefront sensing is an elegant solution for wavefront sensing since near-focal images of any source taken by a detector show distortions in the presence of aberrations. Non-Common Path Aberrations and the Low Wind Effect both have the ability to limit the achievable contrast of the finest coronagraphs coupled with the best extreme adaptive optics systems. To correct for these aberrations, the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument hosts many focal plane wavefront sensors using detectors as close to the science detector as possible. We present seven of them and compare their implementation and efficiency on SCExAO. This work will be critical for wavefront sensing on next generation of extremely large telescopes that might present similar limitations.
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