Context. Frequency analyses are very important in astronomy today, not least in the ever-growing field of exoplanets, where shortperiod signals in stellar radial velocity data are investigated. Periodograms are the main (and powerful) tools for this purpose. However, recovering the correct frequencies and assessing the probability of each frequency is not straightforward. Aims. We provide a formalism that is easy to implement in a code, to describe a Bayesian periodogram that includes weights and a constant offset in the data. The relative probability between peaks can be easily calculated with this formalism. We discuss the differences and agreements between the various periodogram formalisms with simulated examples. Methods. We used the Bayesian probability theory to describe the probability that a full sine function (including weights derived from the errors on the data values and a constant offset) with a specific frequency is present in the data. Results. From the expression for our Baysian generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram (BGLS), we can easily recover the expression for the non-Bayesian version. In the simulated examples we show that this new formalism recovers the underlying periods better than previous versions. A Python-based code is available for the community.
Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we setup the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.
In adaptive optics (AO) the deformable mirror (DM) dynamics are usually neglected because, in general, the DM can be considered infinitely fast. Such assumption may no longer apply for the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) with DM that are several meters in diameter with slow and/or resonant responses. For such systems an important challenge is to design an optimal regulator minimizing the variance of the residual phase. In this contribution, the general optimal minimum-variance (MV) solution to the full dynamical reconstruction and control problem of AO systems (AOSs) is established. It can be looked upon as the parent solution from which simpler (used hitherto) suboptimal solutions can be derived as special cases. These include either partial DM-dynamics-free solutions or solutions derived from the static minimum-variance reconstruction (where both atmospheric disturbance and DM dynamics are neglected altogether). Based on a continuous stochastic model of the disturbance, a state-space approach is developed that yields a fully optimal MV solution in the form of a discrete-time linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) regulator design. From this LQG standpoint, the control-oriented state-space model allows one to (1) derive the optimal state-feedback linear regulator and (2) evaluate the performance of both the optimal and the sub-optimal solutions. Performance results are given for weakly damped second-order oscillatory DMs with large-amplitude resonant responses, in conditions representative of an ELT AO system. The highly energetic optical disturbance caused on the tip/tilt (TT) modes by the wind buffeting is considered. Results show that resonant responses are correctly handled with the MV regulator developed here. The use of sub-optimal regulators results in prohibitive performance losses in terms of residual variance; in addition, the closed-loop system may become unstable for resonant frequencies in the range of interest.
To directly image exoplanets and faint circumstellar disks, the noisy stellar halo must be suppressed to a high level. To achieve this feat, the angular differential imaging observing technique and the least-squares Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm have now become the standard in single band direct imaging observations and data reduction. With the development and commissioning of new high-order high-contrast adaptive optics equipped with integral field units, the image subtraction algorithm needs to be modified to allow the optimal use of polychromatic images, field-rotated images and archival data. A new algorithm, TLOCI (for Template LOCI), is designed to achieve this task by maximizing a companion signal-to-noise ratio instead of simply minimizing the noise as in the original LOCI algorithm. The TLOCI technique uses an input spectrum and template Point Spread Functions (PSFs, generated from unocculted and unsaturated stellar images) to optimize the reference image least-squares coefficients to minimize the planet self-subtraction, thus maximizing its throughput per wavelength, while simultaneously providing a maximum suppression of the speckle noise. The new algorithm has been developed using on-sky GPI data and has achieved impressive contrast. This paper presents the TLOCI algorithm, on-sky performance, and will discuss the challenges in recovering the planet spectrum with high fidelity.
Computationally efficient wave-front reconstruction techniques for astronomical adaptive-optics (AO) systems have seen great development in the past decade. Algorithms developed in the spatial-frequency (Fourier) domain have gathered much attention, especially for high-contrast imaging systems. In this paper we present the Wiener filter (resulting in the maximization of the Strehl ratio) and further develop formulae for the anti-aliasing (AA) Wiener filter that optimally takes into account high-order wave-front terms folded in-band during the sensing (i.e., discrete sampling) process. We employ a continuous spatial-frequency representation for the forward measurement operators and derive the Wiener filter when aliasing is explicitly taken into account. We further investigate and compare to classical estimates using least-squares filters the reconstructed wave-front, measurement noise, and aliasing propagation coefficients as a function of the system order. Regarding high-contrast systems, we provide achievable performance results as a function of an ensemble of forward models for the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (using sparse and nonsparse representations) and compute point-spread-function raw intensities. We find that for a 32×32 single-conjugated AOs system the aliasing propagation coefficient is roughly 60% of the least-squares filters, whereas the noise propagation is around 80%. Contrast improvements of factors of up to 2 are achievable across the field in the H band. For current and next-generation high-contrast imagers, despite better aliasing mitigation, AA Wiener filtering cannot be used as a standalone method and must therefore be used in combination with optical spatial filters deployed before image formation actually takes place.
Context. Here we describe a simple, efficient, and most importantly fully operational point-spread-function(PSF)-reconstruction approach for laser-assisted ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) in the frame of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) Wide Field Mode. Aims. Based on clear astrophysical requirements derived by the MUSE team and using the functionality of the current ESO Adaptive Optics Facility we aim to develop an operational PSF-reconstruction (PSFR) algorithm and test it both in simulations and using on-sky data.Methods. The PSFR approach is based on a Fourier description of the GLAO correction to which the specific instrumental effects of MUSE Wide Field Mode (pixel size, internal aberrations, etc.) have been added. It was first thoroughly validated with full end-to-end simulations. Sensitivity to the main atmospheric and AO system parameters was analysed and the code was re-optimised to account for the sensitivity found. Finally, the optimised algorithm was tested and commissioned using more than one year of on-sky MUSE data. Results. We demonstrate with an on-sky data analysis that our algorithm meets all the requirements imposed by the MUSE scientists, namely an accuracy better than a few percent on the critical PSF parameters including full width at half maximum and global PSF shape through the kurtosis parameter of a Moffat function. Conclusions. The PSFR algorithm is publicly available and is used routinely to assess the MUSE image quality for each observation. It can be included in any post-processing activity which requires knowledge of the PSF.
The latest generation of high contrast instruments dedicated to exoplanets and circumstellar disks imaging are equipped with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphs to reach contrasts of up to 10 −4 at a few tenths of arc-seconds in the near infrared. The resulting image shows faint features, only revealed with this combination, such as the wind driven halo. The wind driven halo is due to the lag between the adaptive optics correction and the turbulence speed over the telescope pupil. However we observe an asymmetry of this wind driven halo that was not expected when the instrument was designed. In this letter, we describe and demonstrate the physical origin of this asymmetry and support our explanation by simulating the asymmetry with an end-to-end approach. From this work, we found out that the observed asymmetry is explained by the interference between the AO-lag error and scintillation effects, mainly originating from the fast jet stream layer located at about 12 km in altitude. Now identified and interpreted, this effect can be taken into account for further design of high contrast imaging simulators, next generation or upgrade of high contrast instruments, predictive control algorithms for adaptive optics or image post-processing techniques.
Context. The wind-driven halo is a feature that is observed in images that were delivered by the latest generation of ground-based instruments that are equipped with an extreme adaptive optics system and a coronagraphic device, such as SPHERE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). This signature appears when the atmospheric turbulence conditions vary faster than the adaptive optics loop can correct for. The wind-driven halo is observed as a radial extension of the point spread function along a distinct direction (this is sometimes referred to as the butterfly pattern). When this is present, it significantly limits the contrast capabilities of the instrument and prevents the extraction of signals at close separation or extended signals such as circumstellar disks. This limitation is consequential because it contaminates the data for a substantial fraction of the time: about 30% of the data produced by the VLT/SPHERE instrument are affected by the wind-driven halo. Aims. This paper reviews the causes of the wind-driven halo and presents a method for analyzing its contribution directly from the scientific images. Its effect on the raw contrast and on the final contrast after post-processing is demonstrated. Methods. We used simulations and on-sky SPHERE data to verify that the parameters extracted with our method can describe the wind-driven halo in the images. We studied the temporal, spatial, and spectral variation of these parameters to point out its deleterious effect on the final contrast. Results. The data-driven analysis we propose provides information to accurately describe the wind-driven halo contribution in the images. This analysis confirms that this is a fundamental limitation of the finally reached contrast performance. Conclusions. With the established procedure, we will analyze a large sample of data delivered by SPHERE in order to propose post-processing techniques that are tailored to removing the wind-driven halo.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.