Inosine pranobex (IP), commonly known as inosine acedoben dimepranol, isoprinosine and methisoprinol, has been proven to positively impact the host's immune system, by enhancing T-cell lymphocyte proliferation and activity of natural killer cells, increasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and thereby restoring deficient responses in immunosuppressed patients. At the same time, it has been shown that it can affect viral RNA levels and hence inhibit growth of several viruses. Due to its immunomodulatory and antiviral properties, and its safety profile, it has been widely used since 1971 against viral infections and diseases, among which subacute sclerosis panencephalitis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza and acute respiratory infections, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections.Following an analysis of almost five decades of scientific literature since its original approval, we here summarize in vivo and in vitro studies manifesting the means in which IP impacts the host's immune system. We also provide a synopsis of therapeutic trials in the majority of which IP was found to have a beneficial effect. Lastly, positive results from limited studies, suggesting the putative future use of IP in new therapeutic indications are briefly described. In order to support use of IP against viral infections apart from those already approved, and to establish its use in clinical practice, further welldesigned and executed trials are warranted. Funding: Ewopharma International.
Sensorimotor gating is the ability of a weak sensory event to inhibit the motor response to an intense stimulus. Drugs that act as serotonin releasers, such as MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), impair sensorimotor gating, which is measured as a prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The first objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different doses of MDMA on PPI and the acoustic startle response (ASR) in male and female Wistar rats. The second objective was to examine the effect of MDMA on PPI across the estrous cycle in female rats. MDMA was administered in doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg s.c. 15 min before the start of the experiment. The controls received saline in equivalent volumes. MDMA dose-dependently decreased PPI in both the male and female rats and produced higher levels of ASR in the male rats compared to the females. In addition, we found that female rats in the diestrous and metestrous phases are more sensitive to MDMA and showed higher deficits in PPI than female rats in the proestrous and estrous phases. Our result showed that female rats in the proestrous and estrous phases were less sensitive to the disruption of PPI by MDMA.
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