Despite a plethora of literature on organizational climate for innovation and the persuasive arguments establishing its link to organizational performance, few studies hitherto have explored innovative work behavior of managers. Specifically, limited attention has been paid to explaining how organizations perceive the importance of stimulating innovative work environments. Drawing from organizational climate theory, this study investigates the mediating effects of innovative work behavior on the relationship between organizational climate for innovation and organizational performance. Our findings from a survey of 202 managers working in Malaysian companies demonstrate that innovative work behavior plays a mediating role in the relationship between organizational climate for innovation and organizational performance. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed.
This study integrates the constructs of organisational change strategies, market orientation, top management behaviour, leadership style, learning orientation and business perfor Mance. A survey was sent to the top 2,000 organisations within Australia, as defined by annual revenue. Data was analysed using two‐stage least squares regression (2SLS). Findings indicate that both planned and emergent change strategies significantly influence market orientation. Results also indicate that top management behaviour, and leadership style significantly impact on a learning orientation. Finally, results indicate that a market orientation is positively related to a learning orientation and that a learning orientation has a stronger significant positive effect on business perfor Mance than does a market orientation.
Understanding how loss of biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning, and thus the delivery of ecosystem goods and services, has become increasingly necessary in a changing world. Considerable recent attention has focused on predicting how biodiversity loss simultaneously impacts multiple ecosystem functions (that is, ecosystem multifunctionality), but the ways in which these effects vary across ecosystems remain unclear. Here, we report the results of two 19-year plant diversity manipulation experiments, each established across a strong environmental gradient. Although the effects of plant and associated fungal diversity loss on individual functions frequently differed among ecosystems, the consequences of biodiversity loss for multifunctionality were relatively invariant. However, the context-dependency of biodiversity effects also worked in opposing directions for different individual functions, meaning that similar multifunctionality values across contrasting ecosystems could potentially mask important differences in the effects of biodiversity on functioning among ecosystems. Our findings highlight that an understanding of the relative contribution of species or functional groups to individual ecosystem functions among contrasting ecosystems and their interactions (that is, complementarity versus competition) is critical for guiding management efforts aimed at maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services.
For the past 50 years there has been rapid warming in the maritime Antarctic 1-3 , with concurrent, and probably temperature-mediated, proliferation of the two native plants, Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) and especially Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica) 4-10 . In many terrestrial ecosystems at high latitudes, nitrogen (N) supply regulates primary productivity 11-13 . Although the predominant view is that only inorganic and amino acid N are important sources of N for angiosperms, most N enters soil as protein.Maritime Antarctic soils have large stocks of proteinaceous N, which is released slowly as decomposition is limited by low temperatures. Consequently, an ability to acquire N at an early stage of availability is key to the success of photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that D. antarctica can acquire N through its roots as short peptides, produced at an early stage of protein decomposition, acquiring N over three times faster than as amino acid, nitrate or ammonium, and more than 160 times faster than the mosses with which it competes. Efficient acquisition of the N released in faster decomposition of soil organic matter as temperatures rise 14 may give D. antarctica an advantage over competing mosses that has facilitated its recent proliferation in the maritime Antarctic.Over the past 50 years some areas of the maritime Antarctic have warmed at rates almost an order of magnitude greater than the global mean 1 . Although bryophytes still dominate the vegetation, during this period there have typically been order of magnitude increases in the size of most populations of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. 4,5,9,15 . In the maritime Antarctic, D. antarctica is most frequently found growing either where moss has been present and has died, or with living moss, particularly Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske, which is a primary colonist 
Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) is the discipline by which enterprises monitor, analyze, and control risks from across the enterprise, with the goal of identifying underlying correlations and thus optimizing the risk‐taking behavior in a portfolio context. This study analyzes the valuation implications of ERM Maturity. We use data from the industry leading Risk and Insurance Management Society Risk Maturity Model over the period from 2006 to 2011, which scores firms on a five‐point maturity scale. Our results suggest that firms that have reached mature levels of ERM are exhibiting a higher firm value, as measured by Tobin's Q. We find a statistically significant positive relation to the magnitude of 25 percent. Upon decomposition of the maturity score, we find that the most important aspects of ERM from a valuation perspective relate to the level of top–down executive engagement and the resultant cascade of ERM culture throughout the firm. Firms that have successfully integrated the ERM process into both their strategic activities and everyday practices display superior ability in uncovering risk dependencies and correlations across the entire enterprise and as a consequence enhanced value when undertaking the ERM maturity journey ceteris paribus.
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