This study aimed to characterize and analyze the swiddens and the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental scenario of the Quilombola communities Ramal Bacuri and Rio Baixo Itacuruçá in the municipality of Abaetetuba, Pará. The sampling of informants was non-probabilistic and used the snowball method and the data were collected through participant observation, field journals, and semi-structured interviews with the support of forms for characterization of the swiddens, productive aspects and difficulties in swidden management. The data were analyzed by content analysis. The results indicated that the swiddens are traditionally planted on terra firme (non-flooded) areas (primary and secondary forests, the latter known as “capoeiras”) and that environmental, socioeconomic and cultural conditions are factors that influence the perspective of the product with the highest market value. A relative diversity of annual and perennial species was observed in the two communities, which serve as food and are also used for income generation. The conscious use of “capoeiras”, the control of fires by firebreaks, and the maintenance of varieties of “manivas” are knowledge/practices that favor the conservation of agrobiodiversity. Therefore, the swiddens of Bacuri and Itacuruçá are agrobiodiverse spaces that encompass biological diversity and traditional knowledge associated with the management and conservation of resources.
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