BackgroundNectar gain and loss are important flower transitions observed in angiosperms, and are particularly common in orchids. To understand such transitions, the availability of detailed anatomical data and species-level phylogenies are crucial. We investigated the evolution of food deception in Epidendrum, one of the largest orchid genera, using genus phylogeny to map transitions between nectar gain and loss among different clades. Associations between anatomical and histochemical changes and nectar gain and loss were examined using fresh material available from 27 species. The evolution of nectar presence/absence in Epidendrum species was investigated in a phylogenetic framework of 47 species, using one nuclear and five plastid DNA regions available from GenBank and sequenced in this study.ResultsThe presence or absence of nectar was strongly associated with changes in the inner epidermal tissues of nectaries. Nectar-secreting species have unornamented epidermal tissue, in contrast to the unicellular trichomes found on the epidermis of food deceptive species. Bayesian tests confirmed that transitions occurred preferentially from nectar presence to nectar absence across the Epidendrum phylogeny. In addition, independent nectar loss events were found across the phylogeny, suggesting a lack of constraint for these transitions.ConclusionsOrnamented nectaries may play an important role in the deceptive pollination strategy by secreting volatile organic compounds and providing tactile stimuli to pollinators. The recurrent and apparently irreversible pattern of nectar loss in Epidendrum suggests that food deception may constitute an alternative evolutionarily stable strategy, as observed in other orchid groups.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12870-018-1398-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
Floristic sampling was carried out in Serra do Japi Biological Reserve, Jundiaí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, including physiognomies of semideciduous montane forest, a type of forest formation within the Atlantic Forest domain. Six hundred and sixty one species distributed in 129 families were recorded; the ten most diverse phanerogam families were: Asteraceae (56 species), Fabaceae (37), Rubiaceae (29), Poaceae (25), Solanaceae (24), Cyperaceae (19), Euphorbiaceae (19), Orchidaceae (19), Melastomataceae (17), and Piperaceae (17). The addition of 322 species from other floristic surveys increased the number of species of Serra do Japi to 976, distributed in 141 families. Compared to other floristic surveys carried out in the Atlantic Forest, our results highlight the floristic diversity of the study area and the importance of preserving the vegetation of this highly urbanized region.
A recent molecular based phylogeny (Borchsenius et al. 2012) redefined the genus Goeppertia Nees (1831: 337) to include all the subgenera of Calathea Meyer (1818: 6) proposed by Schumann (1902) with the exception of C. subgenus Calathea Körnicke (1862: 112). As a result, several species of Calathea recently described were transferred to Goeppertia (Braga 2014). Similarly, a taxonomic revision of the Brazilian species, currently carried out by the first author, led to the conclusion that Calathea polytricha Baker (1894: 497) should be combined in Goeppertia. This species features the synapomorphies of Goeppertia, such as simple inflorescences and corolla lobes straight to spreading, and belongs to Schumann’s subgenus Pseudophrynium Körnicke (1862: 113). During the taxonomic revision, other names have been considered synonyms and are typified here.
Amazonia is extremely biodiverse, but the mechanisms for the origin of this diversity are still under debate. We propose a diversification model for Amazonia based on the interplay of intrinsic clade functional traits, habitat associations and past geological events, using as a model group the species-rich Neotropical family Marantaceae. Our results show that the species richness of the lineage is predicted by functional strategy, rather than clade age, and thus the fast vs. slow growth functional trade-off is a major determinant of clade diversification in Marantaceae. Rapidly growing clades were mostly associated with highly productive habitats, and their origin and diversification dynamics matched the expansion of fertile soils mediated by Andean uplift c. 23 Mya. Fast-growth strategies probably led to fast molecular evolution, speeding up speciation rates and species accumulation, resulting in higher numbers of extant species. Our results indicate that pure allopatric-dispersal models disconnected from past geological and ecological forces may be inadequate for explaining the evolutionary and diversity patterns in Amazonian lowlands. We suggest that a coupling of the functional trait-niche framework with diversification dynamics provides insights into the evolutionary history of tropical forests and helps elucidate the mechanisms underlying the origin and evolution of its spectacular biodiversity.
The private owned conservation area of RPPN Paiol Maria includes 76 ha of montane forest located at the municipality of São Lourenço da Serra, São Paulo State, belongs to the biodiversity corridor of the Serra do Mar, and is located at the northern part of Ribeira valley. This study was carried out during the period of June 2010 to September 2011 and our aim was to elaborate a checklist of the non-arboreal species occurring in the RPPN. A total of 330 species, distributed in 84 families and 223 genera were collected. Four species recorded for this work appears in the red list for the state of São Paulo. A similarity analysis between the epiphytes found in the RPPN and other four areas of montane forest reassert the important role of secondary forest fragments to the knowledge and conservation of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity.
The species of Marantaceae described by Édouard Morren are cultivated due to the ornamental value of their leaves. On account of the widely use of these names for horticultural purposes, the taxa proposed by Morren were reviewed. A total of ten lectotypes, seven epitypes and six neotypes are designated, as well as three lectotypes and two neotypes for species indicated as synonyms of Morren names. We also propose the combination of Calathea lietzei, C. kegljani and C. wiotiana in Goeppertia, the latter due to a previous invalid combination. A new name for the illegitimate C. pulchella is also indicated. Calathea mirabilis was described without an illustration or known material and therefore the application of this name is considered uncertain.
ResumoEste estudo taxonômico envolve as espécies de Marantaceae registradas para as cangas da Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil. Duas espécies ocorrem nas áreas de canga: Maranta ruiziana e Monotagma plurispicatum. Descrições morfológicas dos gêneros e espécies, ilustrações e comentários são apresentados. Palavras-chave: Flona Carajás, cangas, Marantaceae, flora. AbstractThis taxonomic survey comprises the species of Marantaceae registered for the cangas of Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil. Two species inhabit the cangas: Maranta ruiziana and Monotagma plurispicatum. Morphological descriptions of genera and species, illustrations, and additional remarks are also presented.
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