An expression vector for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was introduced into the 32D myeloid cell line, which is devoid of EGF receptors and absolutely dependent on interleukin-3 (IL-3) for its proliferation and survival. Expression of the EGF receptor conferred the ability to utilize EGF for transduction of a mitogenic signal. When the transfected cells were propagated in EGF, they exhibited a more mature myeloid phenotype than was observed under conditions of IL-3-directed growth. Moreover, exposure to EGF led to a rapid stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism, while IL-3 had no detectable effect on phosphoinositide turnover either in control or EGF receptor-transfected 32D cells. Although the transfected cells exhibited high levels of functional EGF receptors, they remained nontumorigenic. In contrast, transfection of v-erbB, an amino-terminal truncated form of the EGF receptor with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity, not only abrogated the IL-3 growth factor requirement of 32D cells, but caused them to become tumorigenic in nude mice. These results show that a naïve hematopoietic cell expresses all of the intracellular components of the EGF-signaling pathway necessary to evoke a mitogenic response and sustain continuous proliferation.
Distinct genes encode a and f3 plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) receptors that differ in their abilities to be triggered by three dimeric forms of the PDGF molecule. We show that PDGF-receptor mitogenic function can be reconstituted in a naive hematopoietic cell line by introduction of expression vectors for either a or j3 PDGF receptor cDNAs. Thus, each receptor is independently capable of coupling with mitogenic signal-transduction pathways inherently present in these cells. Activation of either receptor also resulted in chemotaxis, alterations in inositol lipid metabolism, and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. The magnitude of these functional responses correlated well with the binding properties of the different PDGF isoforms to each receptor. Thus, availability of specific PDGF isoforms and relative expression of each PDGF-receptor gene product are major determinants of the spectrum of known PDGF responses.
The c-fms protooncogene encodes the receptor for macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1). Expression vectors containing either normal or oncogenic pointmutated human c-fins genes were transfected into interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent 32D cells in order to determine the effects of CSF-1 signaling in this murine clonal myeloid progenitor cell line. CSF-1 was shown to trigger proliferation in association with monocytic differentiation of the 32D-c-fins cells. Monocytic differentiation was reversible upon removal of CSF-1, implying that CSF-1 was required for maintenance of the monocyte phenotype but was not sufficient to induce an irrevocable commitment to differentiation. Human CSF-1 was also shown to be a potent chemoattractant for 32D-c-fms cells, suggesting that CSF-1 may serve to recruit monocytes from the circulation to tissue sites of inflammation or iu'ury. Although c-fms did not release 32D cells from factor dependence, pointmutated c-fms[S301,F969] (Leu-301 --Ser, Tyr-969 -* Phe) was able to abrogate their IL-3 requirement and induce tumorigenicity. IL-3-independent 32D-c-fms[S301,F969J cells also displayed a mature monocyte phenotype, implying that differentiation did not interfere with progression of these cells to the malignant state. All of these rmdings demonstrate that a single growth factor receptor can specifically couple with multiple intracellular signaling pathways and play a critical role in modulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration.
Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency for 1 h. GSM exposure induced alterations in cell morphology and increased the expression of mitogenic signal transduction genes (e.g., MAP kinase kinase 3, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin G1), cell growth inhibitors (e.g., transforming growth factor-beta), and genes controlling apoptosis (e.g., bax). A significant increase in DNA synthesis and intracellular mitogenic second messenger formation matched the high expression of MAP kinase family genes. These findings show that these electromagnetic fields have significant biological effects on human skin fibroblasts.
A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity of unknown biological function associates with tyrosine kinase-containing proteins, including a number of growth factor receptors after ligand stimulation. In the platelet-derived growth factor (jPDGF) receptor, phosphorylation of a specific tyrosine residue within the kinase insert domain was required for its interaction with this enzyme. We show that substitutions of phenylalanine for tyrosine residue 731 or 742 within the kinase insert domain of the OLPDGF receptor do not impair PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor or of an in vivo substrate, phospholipase C-y. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol turnover in response to ligand stimulation is unaffected. However, both lesions markedly impair receptor association with PI-3 kinase. Antiphosphotyrosine antibody-recoverable PI-3 kinase was also dramatically reduced in PDGF-stimulated cells expressing either mutant receptor. Since neither mutation abolished PDGF-induced mitogenesis or chemotaxis, we conclude that oaPDGF receptor-associated PI-3 kinase activity is not required for either of these major PDGF signalling functions.
In this paper we demonstrate that the cytosolic low-M~ acid phosphatase purified from bovine liver has phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase acitivity on aep-autophosphorylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. This activity was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate; the latter result indicates that free sulfhydryl groups are required for phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity. The enzyme was active in a broad pH range, with maximum activity between pH 5.5 and 7.5. The apparent Km for 32P-EGF receptor dephosphorylation was 4 riM. The enzyme appeared to be specific for phosphotyrosine in that it dephosphorylated the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and L-phosphotyrosine, but not a2P-Ser-casein, L-phosphoserine or L-phosphothreonine. These data suggest that the cytosolic low-Mr acid phosphatase might play a regulatory role in EGF receptor-dependent transmembrane signalling.Acid phosphatase; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Phosphotyrosine
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