Objective To analyse the histological components of the transition zone in both normal human prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to determine the volumetric density (
RESUMO.-[Artéria celíaca em coelhos Nova Zelândia: estudo anatômico de sua origem e arranjo para a pesquisa experimental e a prática cirúrgica.] Os coelhos têm sido usados como modelo experimental em diferentes patologias e para estudos de toxicologia, farmacologia e cirurgia em várias universidades. Entretanto apesar de sua grande utilização, muitos aspectos de sua macroanatomia, em especial os que se referem ao sistema vascular arterial que irrigam as viscerais abdominopélvicas ainda carecem de uma descrição mais detalhada, pois os vasos arteriais apresentam grande variabilidade na sua distribuição e trajeto. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos, 13 machos e 17 fêmeas, pesando em media 2,5 kg e apresentando comprimento rostro-sacral em torno de 40cm. A artéria aorta torácica foi canulada e através da mesma foi feita à fixação com solução de formaldeído a 10% e repleções vasculares com solução de Petrolátex S65 corado. A artéria celíaca e suas ramificações Brazil. E-mail: email@example.com Rabbits have been used as an experimental model in many diseases and for the study of toxicology, pharmacology and surgery in many universities. However, some aspects of their macro anatomy need a more detailed description, especially the abdominal and pelvic arterial vascular system, which has a huge variability in distribution and trajectory. Thirty cadaveric adult New Zealand rabbits, 13 male and 17 female, with an average weight and rostrum-sacral length of 2.5 kg and 40cm, respectively, were used. The thoracic aorta was cannulated and the vascular system was filled with stained latex S-65. The celiac artery and its proximal branches were dissected and lengthened in order to evidence origin and proximal ramifications. The celiac artery emerged between the 12 th and 13 th thoracic vertebra in 11 (36.7%) rabbits; at the level of the 13 th thoracic vertebra in 6 (20%) rabbits; between the 13 th thoracic vertebra and the 1 st lumbar vertebra in 12 (40%) rabbits; and at the level of the 1 st lumbar vertebra in only one (3.3%) rabbit. The mean length of the celiac artery was 0.5cm. The celiac artery first branch was the lienal artery, the second branch was the left gastric artery and the hepatic artery arose from the left gastric artery in all the dissected rabbits. No relation was observed between the celiac artery length and the rostrum-sacral length in rabbits. The number of left gastric and lienal artery branches and the distribution of celiac artery origin are not gender dependent. proximais foram dissecadas ao longo do seu percurso, registrando com auxílio de um paquímetro seu comprimento e sua esqueletopia. A artéria celíaca teve sua emergência de forma única diretamente da artéria aorta abdominal em todos os animais dissecados. Emitiu inicialmente a artéria lienal e a seguir a artéria gástrica esquerda que se continuou como hepática em todos os 30 animais. A artéria celíaca teve sua origem entre a 12 a e 13 a vértebra torácica em 11 animais (36,7 %), na 13ª vértebra torácica em 6 (20 %), entre a 13ª vértebra torácica e a 1 ...
Due to inadvertent cardiac or great vessel injury, sternal foramina may pose as a great hazard during sternal puncture. They can also be misinterpreted as osteolytic lesions in cross-sectional imaging of the sternum. The distribution of these variations differs between populations, but data from Brazilians are scarcely reported. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the frequency of midline sternal foramen and double-ended xiphoid process, as developmental variations, in order to avoid fatal complications following sternal puncture of sternal acupuncture treatment. A total of 114 chest computed tomograms were evaluated. The frequency of midline sternal foramen in a complication risk bearing feature is of approximately 10.5%. The double-ended xiphoid process was present in 17.5%. We conclude that sternal acupuncture should be planned in the region of corpus-previous CT should be done to rule out this variation. Furthermore, we strongly recommend the acupuncture technique which prescribes a safe superficial-oblique approach to the sternum.
The corpus cavernosum (CC) extracellular matrix is essential for normal penile erection and is implicated in erectile dysfunction. Although investigations of these issues have used the rabbit CC, organization of its components is not well known to date. We characterized and quantified the volumetric density (Vv) of the elastic system fibers in the corpus spongiosum (CS), CC and tunica albuginea (TA) of the rabbit penis. Adult New Zealand rabbits (n ¼ 10) were used. The penile midshaft fragments were fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered formalin solution and/or Bouin's liquid for 24-48 h, and processed using standard histological techniques. The sections were stained with Weigert's Fucsin-Resorcin with previous oxidation. The elastic system fibers Vv (%) was determined in 25 random fields of each fragment, using the M-42 test grid. The histochemical methods detected elastic system fibers in CS, CC and TA of all animals. The Vv of elastic fibers average was 25.0372.0% for CC, 32.2371.41% for CS and 22.3873.61% for TA. Results for CC and CS were not significantly different. The great amount of elastic fibers distribution beneath the endothelium suggest that these fibers may have an important role in the erection process in rabbits. The present data should therefore provide important information for devising experiments and interpreting results when using the rabbit penis as a model for penile dysfunctions, especially when making comparisons with humans.
SUMMARY:The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of the ossified superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) on dry bones of scapulae. 221 dry bones were analyzed, (111 rights and 110 lefts), proceeding from Rio de Janeiro and of Santa Catarina, Brazil. As exclusion criterion, were not analyzed bones of children or damaged. For the quantitative analysis of the data, the software Graphad Instat was used. Fisher exact test was used considering the p≤ 0,05 as significant. After analysis of the scapulae, 30,76% (68/ 221) presented the ossified STSL (p≤ 0,0001) of which, 52,94% (36/68) were ossified on the right side and 47,05% (32/68) on the left one. The 153 scapulae that did not present the ossified STSL, it was observed in 19,6 % (30/153) of these bones, the superior edge varying in the transverse plan, increasing superior angulation and, modified the width and depth of the scapular incisure. This anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by clinicians that approaches painful syndrome of the shoulder, as well as, this anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by students that may manipulate this anatomical area.
SUMMARY:The aim of the study was to establish morphometrically the infraorbital foramen (IOF) location in the sagittal and transversal plan of the skull and to analyze the variations, as well as verifying the symmetry with the contralateral IOF. 210 skulls were analyzed and as exclusion criterion, were not analyzed skulls of children. Digital paquimeter was used and had been carried through two bilateral measures: a)sagittal measure; from infraorbital margin until the superior margin of the IOF; b) transversal measure, of the lateral margin of piriformis opening until the medial margin of the IOF, using the transversal plan. These measures had formed an angle of 90º between itself. The data were analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov to verify the Gaussian distribution and and Person's test to evaluate the correlation, considering significantly the differences that had presented a p≤ 0,05. The mean±SD in the sagital measures were respectively; right side 6,71±1.70 mm and 6,83±1.83 mm for left side (p≤0.0001). Transversal measures were: right side 13,28±2.17mm and 13,31±2.19 mm for left side (p≤0.0001). Were observed supranumerary foramens of the IOF, with presence of the double IOF in 50 cases, being bilateral in 08 specimens, left and right side 21 specimens for each side.The IOF are not absolutely symmetrical and may present pair bilateral and or unilateral opening. The presence of the supranumerary foraminas, as well as, the morphometrics measures in this study may intervene with the anesthesia, thus, suggest that they must be considered in the anaesthesical evaluation and be remembered during the procedures used for the localization of the forame. (Chonghuo, 1993;Chen, 1997;Esper et al. 1997Esper et al. ,1998, require more precise understanding of the surrounding anatomy (Bolini & Del Sol; Karakas et al.). Data on morphometric measurements regarding reference points should reduce risks during procedures, surgical operations and anesthesia (Zide & Swift; Karakas et al.; Du Tolt & Nortje). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct morphometric measurements of the IOF location by using the sagittal and transversal plan of the Brazilian skull as reference, as well as verifying the symmetry with the contralateral IOF.Exclusion criterion of the sample: It was adopted like exclusion criterion all the child skulls and the skulls which the piriformis opening was damaged, unilaterally or bilaterally.In all the samples the presence of right maxilar joined to the left maxilar was considered indispensable to have the absolutely certainty that the studied foramens belonged to the same original skull and the statistic could express reliable results. The variables age, sex and race were not considered. Statistical analysis:The softwareGraph Prism was used in the statistical evaluation of measurement results. From these measurements means and standard deviations (mean±SD) were calculated. The data were analyzed by the KolmogorovSmirnov to verify the Gaussian distribution and and Person's test to evaluate the correlati...
The sciatic nerve normally leaves the pelvis by passing through the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis. However, it may divide into its common fibular and tibial nerve components within the pelvis and its relationship with piriformis is variable. In this paper, we describe a new anatomical variation in which the common fibular nerve passed superior, and the tibial nerve inferior, to the superior gemellus muscle. Anatomical variations such as these may contribute to piriformis syndrome, coccygodynia and muscle atrophy.
SUMMARY:The aim of our study was to verify the prevalence of the sternal foramen in adult cadavers and dry bones, as well as to determine its exact localization and relation to acupuncture points. One hundred eighty sternums fixed and contained in 10% formaldehyde solution were examined, of which 100 were dry bones and 80 belonged to adult cadavers. The morphometric measures were expressed in millimeters when measuring the length: 1) from jugular incision to the foramen (JI-F); 2) from sternal angle to the foramen (EA-F); 3) from xiphoid process to the foramen (XP-F). Statistical analysis was performed to compare expected vs obtained foramina frequency, using Fisher's test (p≤0.05 was considered significant). The results showed 16.6% sternal foramina, significant higher than expected (p≤0.0248). Of the 30 foramina, 53.3% were found in cadavers, of which one was a woman, and 46.7% sternums were found in dry bones. Of the cadavers with sternal foramen, 10 foramina were at the 5th sternochondral articulation level and 6 foramina at the 4th sternochondral level. Of the 14 analyzed dry bones, 9 foramina were at the space between the 4th and the 5th costal pit level and 5 foramina were at the 5th costal pit level. The mean±SD (mm) total length of the sternums was 151.8±34 and the measures JI-F, EA-F, and XP-F were, respectively, 103.8±22.1mm, 65.6±15mm and 46.9 ±15mm. Knowledge of this occurrence is important to avoid serious heart injury by needle insertion, especially as this area holds a commonly used acupuncture point and sternal puncture.
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