The relationships of the hyline tribe Dendropsophini remain poorly studied, with most published analyses dealing with few of the species groups of Dendropsophus. In order to test the monophyly of Dendropsophini, its genera, and the species groups currently recognized in Dendropsophus, we performed a total evidence phylogenetic analysis. The molecular dataset included sequences of three mitochondrial and five nuclear genes from 210 terminals, including 12 outgroup species, the two species of Xenohyla, and 93 of the 108 recognized species of Dendropsophus. The phenomic dataset includes 46 terminals, one per species (34 Dendropsophus, one Xenohyla, and 11 outgroup species). Our results corroborate the monophyly of Dendropsophini and the reciprocal monophyly of Dendropsophus and Xenohyla. Some species groups of Dendropsophus are paraphyletic (the D. microcephalus, D. minimus, and D. parviceps groups, and the D. rubicundulus clade). On the basis of our results, we recognize nine species groups; for three of them (D. leucophyllatus, D. microcephalus, and D. parviceps groups) we recognize some nominal clades to highlight specific morphology or relationships and facilitate species taxonomy. We further discuss the evolution of oviposition site selection, where our results show multiple instances of independent evolution of terrestrial egg clutches during the evolutionary history of Dendropsophus.
We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.).
A new species of microhylid frog of the genus Chiasmocleis from the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, in the states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by the combination of: large size for the genus; robust body; finger I well developed; toe I developed; toes of males extensively webbed, of females basally webbed; toes fringed; dermal spines on the anterior portion of chin in males. An osteological description and brief notes on natural history are also given. Tadpole and advertisement call are unknown. The species was found in several herpetological collections misidentified as Chiasmocleis bassleri, C. shudikarensis or C. ventrimaculata, and a comparison with those species and comments on the taxonomy of the genus are provided.
We describe Allobates grillisimilis from the northwestern region of the Rio Madeira-Rio Tapajós interfluve, state of Am-azonas, Brazil. The new taxon is characterized by its small snout-to-vent length (12.8-16.0 mm, the smallest among known Allobates), by the color pattern of adults (surfaces of throat, chest and abdomen unpigmented), by morphological traits of larvae (a single row of very elongate papillae on posterior labium), and by its distinctive advertisement call, formed by trills of short pulses emitted in a variable number. We also provide notes on reproductive behavior of the new species.
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