River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.
 The composition, sources, and age of particulate organic matter were determined in an Amazonian river-floodplain system during rising, high, falling, and low water periods over 7 yr (1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006), and a mass balance for total organic carbon (dissolved and particulate) was estimated. The Curuai floodplain, composed of several temporally interconnected lakes, is permanently connected to the Amazon River via channels. Organic matter (OM) is imported to the floodplain from the Amazon River mainly during the rising water period and produced in the floodplain and exported to the river during high and falling water periods. No significant exchanges occurred during low water periods. The OM produced in the floodplain is characterized by low C/N ratios and by high chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a). The d 13 C signature has a seasonal trend, with more negative d 13 C values during the high water period than other periods. Δ 14 C results indicate that the bulk OM present in floodplain lakes is predominantly post-bomb (i.e., post-1950). Particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes exported by the Curuai floodplain represent 1.3% and 0.1%, respectively, of the POC and DOC annual fluxes in the mainstem Amazon River at Óbidos but may reach up to 3.3% and 0.8% during falling water. Based on Δ 14 C, d 13 C, Chl-a, and elemental analysis of the particulate organic matter, we demonstrate that floodplain lakes have intense phytoplankton and macrophyte primary production, which is partly exported to the main river channel. Floodplains are thus a significant source of modern and labile organic carbon to the river mainstem, where it can be rapidly degraded and recycled back to the atmosphere.Citation: Moreira-Turcq, P., M.-P. Bonnet, M. Amorim, M. Bernardes, C. Lagane, L. Maurice, M. Perez, and P. Seyler (2013), Seasonal variability in concentration, composition, age, and fluxes of particulate organic carbon exchanged between the floodplain and Amazon River, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27,
RESUMOEste trabalho discute os efeitos das mudanças do uso do solo na biogequímica dos rios da bacia de drenagem do rio Ji-Paraná (Rondônia). Nesta região, a distribuição espacial do desmatamento e das propriedades do solo resultam em sinais diferentes, possibilitando a divisão dos sistemas fluviais em três grupos: rios com águas pobres em íons e baixo impacto; rios com conteúdo iônico intermediário e impacto médio e rios com elevados conteúdo iônico e impacto antropogênico. As características biogeoquímicas dos rios têm relação significativa com a área de pasto, melhor parâmetro para prever a condutividade elétrica (r 2 = 0,87) e as concentrações de sódio (r 2 = 0,75), cloreto (r 2 = 0,69), potássio (r 2 = 0,63), fosfato (r 2 = 0.78), nitrogênio inorgânico (r 2 = 0.52), carbono inorgânico (r 2 = 0.81) e carbono orgânico (rain 2 = 0.51) dissolvidos. Cálcio e magnésio tiveram sua variância explicada pelas características do solo e pastagem. Nossos resultados indicam que as mudanças observadas na micro-escala constituem "sinais biogeoquímicos" gerados pelo processamento do material nas margens dos rios. A medida em que os rios evoluem para ordens superiores, os sinais persistentes nos canais fluviais estão mais associdados às características da bacia de drenagem (solos e uso da terra). Apesar dos efeitos das mudanças observadas no uso do solo não serem ainda detectáveis na macro-escala (bacia amazônica), a disrupção da estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas é detectável nas micro e meso escalas, com alterações significativas na ciclagem de nutrientes nos ecossistemas fluviais. PALAVRAS-CHAVEAmazônia, rios e igarapés, biogeoquímica, mudanças no uso da terra.Effects of land use changes in the biogeochemistry of fluvial systems of the Ji-Paraná river basin, Rondônia. ABSTRACT In this article we present the results of the effects of land use change on the river biogeochemistry of the Ji-Paraná basin (Rondônia). In this region, the spatial distribution of deforestation and soil properties result in different biogeochemical signals, allowing the division of the fluvial systems into three groups: rivers with low ionic concentration and low impact; rivers with intermediate ionic content and medium impact; and rivers with high ionic content and anthropogenic impact. River biogeochemical characteristics present KEY WORDSAmazonia, Rivers and streams, biogeochemistry, land-use change
Abstract. We investigated the forms and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in rivers of the Ji-Paraná Basin, which is situated at the southern limit of the Amazon lowlands and has experienced extensive deforestation in the last three decades (ϳ35 000 km 2 ). Our objective was to investigate how extensive land-use changes, from forest to cattle pasture, have affected river biogeochemistry. We measured a series of chemical, biochemical, and isotopic tracers in three size classes of organic matter within five sites along Ji-Paraná River and eight more sites in six tributaries. The results were compared with C 4 leaf and pasture soils end members in order to test for a pasture-derived signal in the riverine organic matter. The coarse size fraction was least degraded and derived primarily from fresh leaves in lowland forests. The fine fraction was mostly associated with a mineral soil phase, but its ultimate source appeared to be leaves from forests; this fraction was the most enriched in nitrogen. The ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM) appeared to have the same source as the coarse fraction, but it was the most extensively degraded of the three fractions. In contrast to Amazon white-water rivers, rivers of the JiParaná Basin had lower concentrations of suspended solids with a higher carbon and nitrogen content in the three size fractions. However, principal component analyses showed a correlation between areas covered with pasture and the ␦ 13 C values of the three size fractions. The highest ␦ 13 C values were observed in the ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter of the Rolim-de-Moura and Jarú rivers, which have the highest areas covered with pasture. The lower the order of the streams and the higher the pasture area, the greater is the possibility that the C 4 -derived organic matter signal will be detected first in the faster-cycling fraction (UDOM). The large change in land use in the Ji-Paraná Basin, replacement of primary forests by C 4 pastures for cattle feeding, that has taken place in the last 30-40 yr, has already changed the characteristics of the composition of the riverine organic matter.
Abstract-Assuming the paradigm that catchment vegetation is the main source of particulate organic matter (POM) to rivers, the main objective of this study was to determine what the proportion of original C3 carbon from the forest had already been replaced by C4 carbon from sugar cane and pasture in the rivers of the Piracicaba Basin. In order to achieve this objective, we first produced a detailed landcover map using Landsat5-TM images, and then we measured the carbon stable isotopic composition of the particulate riverine organic matter (␦ 13 C-POM) in seven sites along the major rivers and in two sites along a small creek. Sugar cane and pasture (C4 plants) covered almost 60% of the basin area, while silviculture, mostly of other crops, citrus, and forest that are C3 plants, covered 35%. Isotopic studies conducted in large pristine tropical rivers of South America and of Africa have shown that catchment vegetation is the main source of carbon in suspended POM. Our study demonstrates that relatively recent changes (70-80 yr ago) in landcover in the Piracicaba River Basin have already affected the composition of the riverine POM. Therefore, as in natural ecosystems, the vegetation (allochthonous source) plays an important role in the composition of the riverine POM in agricultural systems such as the Piracicaba River Basin. This control can be supported by the good correlation between cumulative area of the basin covered with C4 plants and the ␦ 13 C of the riverine POM. However, our study, differently from others, also shows that, during the low water period, in situ processes, such as primary production, may be an important source of carbon to the riverine POM.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.